Abstract

We report the utilization of transparent poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microwires as the transducer for optical gas flowmetry. The elasticity of the PDMS microwire was exploited not only to miniaturize and simplify the flowm eter but also to widen and tune the measurement range through mechanical stretching. Using a 9mm long microwire, we achieved 2.89.8dB/SLM sensitivity. A 500μm stretching of the microwire also shifted the measurement range from 1 to 4SLM. The experimental results agreed well with predictions based on the fluid dynamic/optical model.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011

2010

P. Galambos and S. Braun, Flow Control 16, 24 (2010).

B. Wenger, N. Tetreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Song and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 35, 3604 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

C.-S. Huang, E. Y.-B. Pun, and W.-C. Wang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Wang, C.-P. Chen, C.-M. Chang, C.-P. Lin, C.-H. Lin, L.-M. Fu, and C.-Y. Lee, Micro- & Nanofluidics 6, 333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators 151, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Vijayan, V. Thakare, R. N. Karekar, and R. C. Aiyer, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 2543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Truxal, Y.-C. Tung, and K. Kurabayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

V. Lien and F. Vollmer, Lab Chip 7, 1352 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazao, P. Caldas, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, and J. L. Santos, Opt. Lett. 32, 1974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Fotsing-Djouwe, M. Gagné, J.-J. Laurin, and R. Kashyap, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 20, 170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

N. Sabaté, J. Santander, L. Fonseca, I. Gràcia, and C. Cané, Sens. Actuators 110, 282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Peng, G. R. Pickrell, Z. Huang, J. Xu, D. W. Kim, B. Qi, and A. Wang, Appl. Opt. 43, 1752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

N. T. Nguyen, Flow Meas. Instrum. 8, 7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986

Aiyer, R. C.

A. Vijayan, V. Thakare, R. N. Karekar, and R. C. Aiyer, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 2543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Araujo, F.

Araujo, F. M.

Braun, S.

P. Galambos and S. Braun, Flow Control 16, 24 (2010).

Caldas, P.

Cané, C.

N. Sabaté, J. Santander, L. Fonseca, I. Gràcia, and C. Cané, Sens. Actuators 110, 282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-M.

Y.-H. Wang, C.-P. Chen, C.-M. Chang, C.-P. Lin, C.-H. Lin, L.-M. Fu, and C.-Y. Lee, Micro- & Nanofluidics 6, 333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-P.

Y.-H. Wang, C.-P. Chen, C.-M. Chang, C.-P. Lin, C.-H. Lin, L.-M. Fu, and C.-Y. Lee, Micro- & Nanofluidics 6, 333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Draheim, J.

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators 151, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, L. A.

Fonseca, L.

N. Sabaté, J. Santander, L. Fonseca, I. Gràcia, and C. Cané, Sens. Actuators 110, 282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fotsing-Djouwe, I. C.

I. C. Fotsing-Djouwe, M. Gagné, J.-J. Laurin, and R. Kashyap, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 20, 170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frazao, O.

Friend, R. H.

B. Wenger, N. Tetreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.-M.

Y.-H. Wang, C.-P. Chen, C.-M. Chang, C.-P. Lin, C.-H. Lin, L.-M. Fu, and C.-Y. Lee, Micro- & Nanofluidics 6, 333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gagné, M.

I. C. Fotsing-Djouwe, M. Gagné, J.-J. Laurin, and R. Kashyap, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 20, 170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Galambos, P.

P. Galambos and S. Braun, Flow Control 16, 24 (2010).

Gràcia, I.

N. Sabaté, J. Santander, L. Fonseca, I. Gràcia, and C. Cané, Sens. Actuators 110, 282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-S.

Huang, Z.

Jorge, P. A. S.

Kamberger, R.

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators 151, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karekar, R. N.

A. Vijayan, V. Thakare, R. N. Karekar, and R. C. Aiyer, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 2543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

I. C. Fotsing-Djouwe, M. Gagné, J.-J. Laurin, and R. Kashyap, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 20, 170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

Kim, D. W.

Kim, J.

J. Lee and J. Kim, J. Micromech. Microeng. 21, 085016(2011).
[CrossRef]

Kurabayashi, K.

S. C. Truxal, Y.-C. Tung, and K. Kurabayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laurin, J.-J.

I. C. Fotsing-Djouwe, M. Gagné, J.-J. Laurin, and R. Kashyap, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 20, 170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-Y.

Y.-H. Wang, C.-P. Chen, C.-M. Chang, C.-P. Lin, C.-H. Lin, L.-M. Fu, and C.-Y. Lee, Micro- & Nanofluidics 6, 333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee and J. Kim, J. Micromech. Microeng. 21, 085016(2011).
[CrossRef]

Lien, V.

V. Lien and F. Vollmer, Lab Chip 7, 1352 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-H.

Y.-H. Wang, C.-P. Chen, C.-M. Chang, C.-P. Lin, C.-H. Lin, L.-M. Fu, and C.-Y. Lee, Micro- & Nanofluidics 6, 333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-P.

Y.-H. Wang, C.-P. Chen, C.-M. Chang, C.-P. Lin, C.-H. Lin, L.-M. Fu, and C.-Y. Lee, Micro- & Nanofluidics 6, 333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. T.

N. T. Nguyen, Flow Meas. Instrum. 8, 7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W.

Pickrell, G. R.

Psaltis, D.

Pun, E. Y.-B.

Qi, B.

Rego, G.

Sabaté, N.

N. Sabaté, J. Santander, L. Fonseca, I. Gràcia, and C. Cané, Sens. Actuators 110, 282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Santander, J.

N. Sabaté, J. Santander, L. Fonseca, I. Gràcia, and C. Cané, Sens. Actuators 110, 282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

Schneider, F.

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators 151, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, W.

Tetreault, N.

B. Wenger, N. Tetreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thakare, V.

A. Vijayan, V. Thakare, R. N. Karekar, and R. C. Aiyer, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 2543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Truxal, S. C.

S. C. Truxal, Y.-C. Tung, and K. Kurabayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tung, Y.-C.

S. C. Truxal, Y.-C. Tung, and K. Kurabayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, K.

Vijayan, A.

A. Vijayan, V. Thakare, R. N. Karekar, and R. C. Aiyer, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 2543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

V. Lien and F. Vollmer, Lab Chip 7, 1352 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallrabe, U.

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators 151, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Wang, W.-C.

Wang, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Wang, C.-P. Chen, C.-M. Chang, C.-P. Lin, C.-H. Lin, L.-M. Fu, and C.-Y. Lee, Micro- & Nanofluidics 6, 333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Welland, M. E.

B. Wenger, N. Tetreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, B.

B. Wenger, N. Tetreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. C. Truxal, Y.-C. Tung, and K. Kurabayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Wenger, N. Tetreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flow Control

P. Galambos and S. Braun, Flow Control 16, 24 (2010).

Flow Meas. Instrum.

N. T. Nguyen, Flow Meas. Instrum. 8, 7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron.

I. C. Fotsing-Djouwe, M. Gagné, J.-J. Laurin, and R. Kashyap, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 20, 170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

J. Lee and J. Kim, J. Micromech. Microeng. 21, 085016(2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Lab Chip

V. Lien and F. Vollmer, Lab Chip 7, 1352 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Micro- & Nanofluidics

Y.-H. Wang, C.-P. Chen, C.-M. Chang, C.-P. Lin, C.-H. Lin, L.-M. Fu, and C.-Y. Lee, Micro- & Nanofluidics 6, 333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

A. Vijayan, V. Thakare, R. N. Karekar, and R. C. Aiyer, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 2543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators

N. Sabaté, J. Santander, L. Fonseca, I. Gràcia, and C. Cané, Sens. Actuators 110, 282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators 151, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

Polymer Testing, W.Grellmann and S.Seidler, eds. (Hanser, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)–(e) PDMS microwire fabrication steps: (a)–(b) Preparation of a water-soluble wax mold with a cylindrical hole. (c)–(d) Inject liquid phase PDMS through the hole. (e) After solidification, the microwire is released by water bath. (f) and (g) show images of a microwire (radius 100 μm , length 1.2 cm ), monolithically attached to handling pads at both ends, in its normal and 200% elongated states, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Operational principle of stretchable optical microwire-based gas flow sensing: The aperture translates the flow-induced bending into a decrease in the output power as a function of d, the center-to-center displacement between the beam and the aperture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for gas flow sensing based on the stretchable optical microwire. The microwire is to be stretched by the linear translation stage on which the all the components from the fixture to the detection head are mounted. In practical implementations, these can be replaced by micro-optic components for miniaturization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured output power as a function of the gas flow rate and elongation. Spline-interpolation lines are added for visual aid. (b) The results of fitting the curves of (a) into Eq. (1). The inset shows the transducer model and parameters.

Equations (1)

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T = 1 e 2 ( X 2 + Y 2 ) n = 0 2 n X 2 n n ! m = 0 n 2 m Y 2 m m ! ,

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