Abstract

We report a new kind of broadly tunable optical bandpass filters based on unusual properties of long-range surface plasmon polaritons. A 0.004 variation in the refractive index of the dielectric medium translates into 210nm of bandpass tuning at telecom wavelengths. The tuning mechanism reported here may be used to create compact and widely tunable optical systems and other plasmonic components with broadly tunable optical response.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology: Components and Devices (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).
  2. O. Solgaard, Photonic Microsystems (Springer, 2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

I. De Leon and P. Berini, Nat. Photon. 4, 382 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jette-Charbonneau and P. Berini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobiška, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1991 (1)

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

L. Wendler and R. Haupt, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3289 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. Dohi, Y. Kuwamura, M. Fukui, and O. Tada, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53, 2828 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

W. T. Tsang, N. A. Olsson, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 650 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. Sarid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

M. Fukui, V. So, and R. Normandin, Phys. Status Solidi B 91, K61 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

1949 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology: Components and Devices (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).

Bei, L.

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, Nat. Photon. 4, 382 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jette-Charbonneau and P. Berini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Breukelaar and P. Berini, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1971(2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, Opt. Lett. 25, 844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berolo, E.

Boltasseva, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Bradberry, G. W.

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Breukelaar, I.

Burke, J. J.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Carnahan, J. W.

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, R.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, Opt. Lett. 25, 844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Leon, I.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, Nat. Photon. 4, 382 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, G. I.

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dohi, H.

H. Dohi, Y. Kuwamura, M. Fukui, and O. Tada, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53, 2828 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. W.

Fukui, M.

H. Dohi, Y. Kuwamura, M. Fukui, and O. Tada, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53, 2828 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Fukui, V. So, and R. Normandin, Phys. Status Solidi B 91, K61 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Haupt, R.

L. Wendler and R. Haupt, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3289 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hermannsson, P. G.

Homola, J.

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobiška, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jette-Charbonneau, S.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jette-Charbonneau and P. Berini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J. J.

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. T.

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kjaer, K.

Kuwamura, Y.

H. Dohi, Y. Kuwamura, M. Fukui, and O. Tada, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53, 2828 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lahoud, N.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, M. S.

Lee, M-H.

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

Lisicka-Shrzek, E.

Logan, R. A.

W. T. Tsang, N. A. Olsson, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 650 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mattiussi, G.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, H. M.

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nenninger, G. G.

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobiška, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nikolajsen, T.

Normandin, R.

M. Fukui, V. So, and R. Normandin, Phys. Status Solidi B 91, K61 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

W. T. Tsang, N. A. Olsson, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 650 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. K.

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosenzveig, T.

Sambles, J. R.

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, D.

D. Sarid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 (1981).
[CrossRef]

So, V.

M. Fukui, V. So, and R. Normandin, Phys. Status Solidi B 91, K61 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Šolc, I.

Solgaard, O.

O. Solgaard, Photonic Microsystems (Springer, 2009).

Spaine, T. W.

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tada, O.

H. Dohi, Y. Kuwamura, M. Fukui, and O. Tada, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53, 2828 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tobiška, P.

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobiška, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, W. T.

W. T. Tsang, N. A. Olsson, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 650 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wendler, L.

L. Wendler and R. Haupt, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3289 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.

C. Ye, Tunable External Cavity Diode Lasers (World Scientific Publishing, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobiška, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W. T. Tsang, N. A. Olsson, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 650 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jette-Charbonneau and P. Berini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Wendler and R. Haupt, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3289 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

H. Dohi, Y. Kuwamura, M. Fukui, and O. Tada, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53, 2828 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

I. De Leon and P. Berini, Nat. Photon. 4, 382 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Sarid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

M. Fukui, V. So, and R. Normandin, Phys. Status Solidi B 91, K61 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Bei, G. I. Dennis, H. M. Miller, T. W. Spaine, and J. W. Carnahan, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobiška, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology: Components and Devices (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).

O. Solgaard, Photonic Microsystems (Springer, 2009).

C. Ye, Tunable External Cavity Diode Lasers (World Scientific Publishing, 2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional view of LR SPP waveguide. The metal layer is positioned between top and bottom dielectric layers with refractive indices n t and n b , respectively. (b) Calculated intensity profile of a LR SPP mode at λ = 1.55 μm supported by a 20 nm thick and 4 μm wide gold stripe embedded between loss-less dielectrics with identical refractive indices. (c) Calculated LR SPP mode profile of the same structure with slightly mismatched n t and n b .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top: the mode power attenuation (MPA) and coupling loss (per facet) as a function of δ n = n t n b for LR SPP waveguides with different width (W) and thickness (t) of the Au stripe. Middle: calculation of the total insertion loss for 5 mm long device. Bottom: effective index ( n eff ) of LR SPP mode as a function δ n with different values of W and t. Dashed lines in the figure show the value of the largest of the two cladding indices, n t or n b . LR SPP mode becomes leaky when n eff is smaller than the largest of n t or n b . (b) Schematic of the LR SPP filter operation. Top: refractive index dispersion curves of the bottom dielectric (BK7 glass) and the refractive-index-tunable top dielectrics. Bottom: calculated optical throughput of the 5 mm long LR SPP filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The LR SPP waveguide structure and the experimental configuration. The waveguide was made of 4 μm wide and 20 nm thick stripe of gold on top of a 11 μm thick layer of thermally grown SiO 2 on a silicon substrate. Five types of the refractive-index-matching fluids were used at the top dielectric.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Refractive index dispersion curves for SiO 2 and five different refractive-index-matching fluids (type 1–5) used in experiments. (b) Calculation and experimental results of the filter transmission for the five different types of index matching fluids. (c),(d) Experimental measurements of the horizontal and vertical mode profiles in the LR SPP filter with type five refractive-index-matching fluid at different wavelengths.

Equations (2)

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λ 1 / n 1 = λ 2 / n 2 ,
δ λ = δ n t / ( d n t d λ d n b d λ ) ,

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