Abstract

We demonstrate a method for the efficient modulation of optical wavelengths around 1550nm in silicon wave guides. The amplitude of a propagating signal is mediated via control of the charge state of indium centers, rather than using free-carriers alone as in the plasma-dispersion effect. A 1×1 switch formed of an integrated p-i-n junction in an indium-doped silicon on insulator (SOI) waveguide provides ‘normally-off’ silicon absorption of greater than 7dB at zero bias. This loss is decreased to 2.8dB with application of a 6V applied reverse bias, with a power consumption of less than 1μW.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photon. 4, 518 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Goebel, G. Wojcik, and S. Moffatt, Phys. Status Solidi C (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 17, 22484 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 3702 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Liu, U. Jeong, S. Mehta, J. Sherbondy, A. Lo, K. Ha Shim, and J. Eun Lim, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology (2000), p. 66.
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Odanaka, A. Hiroki, K. Yamashita, K. Nakanishi, and T. Noda, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22, 330 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

A. Goebel, G. Wojcik, and S. Moffatt, Phys. Status Solidi C (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photon. 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, R. Kou, and S. Itabashi, Opt. Express 18, 11282 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fedeli, Opt. Express 18, 19064 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2001 (1)

S. Odanaka, A. Hiroki, K. Yamashita, K. Nakanishi, and T. Noda, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22, 330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

C. K. Tang, G. T. Reed, A. J. Walton, and A. G. Rickman, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Keevers and M. A. Green, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4022 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 3702 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. J. Parker, S. D. Brotherton, I. Gale, and A. Gill, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3926 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

W. Schelter, W. Hell, R. Helbig, and M. Schulz, J. Phys. C 15, 5839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. A. Messenger and J. S. Blakemore, Phys. Rev. B 4, 1873(1973).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 3702 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Blakemore, J. S.

R. A. Messenger and J. S. Blakemore, Phys. Rev. B 4, 1873(1973).
[CrossRef]

Brotherton, S. D.

G. J. Parker, S. D. Brotherton, I. Gale, and A. Gill, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3926 (1983).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Gale, I.

G. J. Parker, S. D. Brotherton, I. Gale, and A. Gill, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3926 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photon. 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fedeli, Opt. Express 18, 19064 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gill, A.

G. J. Parker, S. D. Brotherton, I. Gale, and A. Gill, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3926 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Goebel, A.

Green, M. A.

M. J. Keevers and M. A. Green, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4022 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Helbig, R.

W. Schelter, W. Hell, R. Helbig, and M. Schulz, J. Phys. C 15, 5839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hell, W.

W. Schelter, W. Hell, R. Helbig, and M. Schulz, J. Phys. C 15, 5839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hiroki, A.

S. Odanaka, A. Hiroki, K. Yamashita, K. Nakanishi, and T. Noda, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22, 330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

Jeong, U.

J. Liu, U. Jeong, S. Mehta, J. Sherbondy, A. Lo, K. Ha Shim, and J. Eun Lim, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology (2000), p. 66.
[CrossRef]

Jessop, P. E.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. E. Jessop, A. P. Knights, G. Wojcik, and A. Goebel, Opt. Express 17, 18571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keevers, M. J.

M. J. Keevers and M. A. Green, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4022 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. E. Jessop, A. P. Knights, G. Wojcik, and A. Goebel, Opt. Express 17, 18571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kou, R.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lim, J. Eun

J. Liu, U. Jeong, S. Mehta, J. Sherbondy, A. Lo, K. Ha Shim, and J. Eun Lim, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology (2000), p. 66.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, U. Jeong, S. Mehta, J. Sherbondy, A. Lo, K. Ha Shim, and J. Eun Lim, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology (2000), p. 66.
[CrossRef]

Lo, A.

J. Liu, U. Jeong, S. Mehta, J. Sherbondy, A. Lo, K. Ha Shim, and J. Eun Lim, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology (2000), p. 66.
[CrossRef]

Logan, D. F.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. E. Jessop, A. P. Knights, G. Wojcik, and A. Goebel, Opt. Express 17, 18571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photon. 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, S.

J. Liu, U. Jeong, S. Mehta, J. Sherbondy, A. Lo, K. Ha Shim, and J. Eun Lim, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology (2000), p. 66.
[CrossRef]

Messenger, R. A.

R. A. Messenger and J. S. Blakemore, Phys. Rev. B 4, 1873(1973).
[CrossRef]

Milesi, F.

Moffatt, S.

A. Goebel, G. Wojcik, and S. Moffatt, Phys. Status Solidi C (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, K.

S. Odanaka, A. Hiroki, K. Yamashita, K. Nakanishi, and T. Noda, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22, 330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, H.

Noda, T.

S. Odanaka, A. Hiroki, K. Yamashita, K. Nakanishi, and T. Noda, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22, 330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Odanaka, S.

S. Odanaka, A. Hiroki, K. Yamashita, K. Nakanishi, and T. Noda, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22, 330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

Parker, G. J.

G. J. Parker, S. D. Brotherton, I. Gale, and A. Gill, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3926 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photon. 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fedeli, Opt. Express 18, 19064 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Tang, G. T. Reed, A. J. Walton, and A. G. Rickman, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rickman, A. G.

C. K. Tang, G. T. Reed, A. J. Walton, and A. G. Rickman, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schelter, W.

W. Schelter, W. Hell, R. Helbig, and M. Schulz, J. Phys. C 15, 5839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, M.

W. Schelter, W. Hell, R. Helbig, and M. Schulz, J. Phys. C 15, 5839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Sherbondy, J.

J. Liu, U. Jeong, S. Mehta, J. Sherbondy, A. Lo, K. Ha Shim, and J. Eun Lim, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology (2000), p. 66.
[CrossRef]

Shim, K. Ha

J. Liu, U. Jeong, S. Mehta, J. Sherbondy, A. Lo, K. Ha Shim, and J. Eun Lim, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology (2000), p. 66.
[CrossRef]

Shinojima, H.

Smith, B. T.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. K.

C. K. Tang, G. T. Reed, A. J. Walton, and A. G. Rickman, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photon. 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fedeli, Opt. Express 18, 19064 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

Van Campenhout, J.

Velha, P.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Walton, A. J.

C. K. Tang, G. T. Reed, A. J. Walton, and A. G. Rickman, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

Wojcik, G.

Yamada, K.

Yamashita, K.

S. Odanaka, A. Hiroki, K. Yamashita, K. Nakanishi, and T. Noda, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22, 330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, D. W.

Zheng, X.

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

S. Odanaka, A. Hiroki, K. Yamashita, K. Nakanishi, and T. Noda, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22, 330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 3702 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Parker, S. D. Brotherton, I. Gale, and A. Gill, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3926 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Keevers and M. A. Green, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4022 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. K. Tang, G. T. Reed, A. J. Walton, and A. G. Rickman, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C (1)

W. Schelter, W. Hell, R. Helbig, and M. Schulz, J. Phys. C 15, 5839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photon. 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. A. Messenger and J. S. Blakemore, Phys. Rev. B 4, 1873(1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

A. Goebel, G. Wojcik, and S. Moffatt, Phys. Status Solidi C (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Liu, U. Jeong, S. Mehta, J. Sherbondy, A. Lo, K. Ha Shim, and J. Eun Lim, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology (2000), p. 66.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a deep-level of energy E d l located within the silicon bandgap, illustrating the two extrinsic optical excitation mechanisms: (A) excitation of an electron from the valence band to an unoccupied center through the absorption of a photon of energy h v > E d l E v and (B) excitation of an electron from an occupied center into the conduction band through the absorption of a photon of energy h v > E c E d l .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Device structure used in demon stration of deep-level optical modulation, fabricated in lengths ranging from 1 8 mm ; (b) waveguide cross section with simulated indium occupancy f plotted for several applied reverse bias values.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

IV characteristic curve measured for p - i - n diode lengths of 1, 3, and 8 mm (absolute current plotted).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Waveguide transmission of three device lengths (1, 3, and 8 mm ) (top) and extracted waveguide absorption coefficient Δ α versus applied reverse bias (bottom axis) and approximate dissipated power (top axis).

Equations (1)

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α = α 0 + x , y Φ ( x , y ) [ N In σ In p [ 1 f ( x , y ) ] + σ f p p ( x , y ) ] d x d y ,

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