Abstract

A simple method of characterization of suspensions of spherical nanoparticles with monotonically variable size is proposed. It allows for the in situ measurement of the particle size as well as spectral dependence of their refractive indices. The method requires three optical channels: one for the illumination of a suspension by white light and two for the measurements of the spectra of scattered light. Parameters of the particles are determined by fitting the measured temporal spectral surfaces by the calculated Mie scattering functions. The method is applied to the particles being grown in a low-pressure reactive plasma of a discharge in an acetylene–argon mixture.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Mendis and M. Rosenberg, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 32, 419 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. M. Mosley, K. A. Hunter, and W. A. Ducker, Environ. Sci. Technol. 37, 3303 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Martins, H. Aguas, I. Ferreira, V. Silva, A. Cabrita, E. Fortunato, Thin Solid Films 383, 165 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Kreuter, Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 47, 65 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. F. R. A. Onofri, M. Wozniak, S. Barbosa, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 51, 228 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Onofri, K. Ren, G. Grisola, J. Nucl. Mater. 390–391, 1093 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. S. Batchelder and M. A. Taubenblatt, “Measurement of size and refractive index of particles using the complex forward-scattered electromagnetic field,” U. S. patent 5,037,202 (6 August 1991).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Mitic, R. Sütterlin, A. V. Ivlev, H. Höffner, M. H. Thoma, S. Zhdanov, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 235001 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. We used a Matlab set of Mie-scattering functions by C. Mätzler for the calculation of theoretical surfaces R(λ,r) available at http://www.hiwater.org/Mie_calcs.html.
  13. S.-K. Hong and J. Winter, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064303(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Berndt, E. Kovačević, I. Stefanović, O. Stepanović, S. H. Hong, L. Boufendi, and J. Winter, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 49, 107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

F. R. A. Onofri, M. Wozniak, S. Barbosa, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 51, 228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

F. Onofri, K. Ren, G. Grisola, J. Nucl. Mater. 390–391, 1093 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Berndt, E. Kovačević, I. Stefanović, O. Stepanović, S. H. Hong, L. Boufendi, and J. Winter, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 49, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Mitic, R. Sütterlin, A. V. Ivlev, H. Höffner, M. H. Thoma, S. Zhdanov, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 235001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S.-K. Hong and J. Winter, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064303(2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. M. Mosley, K. A. Hunter, and W. A. Ducker, Environ. Sci. Technol. 37, 3303 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

R. Martins, H. Aguas, I. Ferreira, V. Silva, A. Cabrita, E. Fortunato, Thin Solid Films 383, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kreuter, Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 47, 65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. R. Jones, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Stoffels, E. Stoffels, G. H. P. M. Swinkels, M. Boufnichel, and G. M. W. Kroesen, Phys. Rev. E 59, 2302(1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

A. Mendis and M. Rosenberg, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 32, 419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aguas, H.

R. Martins, H. Aguas, I. Ferreira, V. Silva, A. Cabrita, E. Fortunato, Thin Solid Films 383, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, S.

F. R. A. Onofri, M. Wozniak, S. Barbosa, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 51, 228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Batchelder, J. S.

J. S. Batchelder and M. A. Taubenblatt, “Measurement of size and refractive index of particles using the complex forward-scattered electromagnetic field,” U. S. patent 5,037,202 (6 August 1991).

Berndt, J.

J. Berndt, E. Kovačević, I. Stefanović, O. Stepanović, S. H. Hong, L. Boufendi, and J. Winter, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 49, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boufendi, L.

J. Berndt, E. Kovačević, I. Stefanović, O. Stepanović, S. H. Hong, L. Boufendi, and J. Winter, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 49, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boufnichel, M.

W. W. Stoffels, E. Stoffels, G. H. P. M. Swinkels, M. Boufnichel, and G. M. W. Kroesen, Phys. Rev. E 59, 2302(1999).
[CrossRef]

Cabrita, A.

R. Martins, H. Aguas, I. Ferreira, V. Silva, A. Cabrita, E. Fortunato, Thin Solid Films 383, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ducker, W. A.

L. M. Mosley, K. A. Hunter, and W. A. Ducker, Environ. Sci. Technol. 37, 3303 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferreira, I.

R. Martins, H. Aguas, I. Ferreira, V. Silva, A. Cabrita, E. Fortunato, Thin Solid Films 383, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fortunato, E.

R. Martins, H. Aguas, I. Ferreira, V. Silva, A. Cabrita, E. Fortunato, Thin Solid Films 383, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grisola, G.

F. Onofri, K. Ren, G. Grisola, J. Nucl. Mater. 390–391, 1093 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Höffner, H.

S. Mitic, R. Sütterlin, A. V. Ivlev, H. Höffner, M. H. Thoma, S. Zhdanov, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 235001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, S. H.

J. Berndt, E. Kovačević, I. Stefanović, O. Stepanović, S. H. Hong, L. Boufendi, and J. Winter, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 49, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.-K.

S.-K. Hong and J. Winter, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064303(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, K. A.

L. M. Mosley, K. A. Hunter, and W. A. Ducker, Environ. Sci. Technol. 37, 3303 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivlev, A. V.

S. Mitic, R. Sütterlin, A. V. Ivlev, H. Höffner, M. H. Thoma, S. Zhdanov, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 235001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, A. R.

A. R. Jones, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kovacevic, E.

J. Berndt, E. Kovačević, I. Stefanović, O. Stepanović, S. H. Hong, L. Boufendi, and J. Winter, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 49, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kreuter, J.

J. Kreuter, Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 47, 65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kroesen, G. M. W.

W. W. Stoffels, E. Stoffels, G. H. P. M. Swinkels, M. Boufnichel, and G. M. W. Kroesen, Phys. Rev. E 59, 2302(1999).
[CrossRef]

Martins, R.

R. Martins, H. Aguas, I. Ferreira, V. Silva, A. Cabrita, E. Fortunato, Thin Solid Films 383, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mendis, A.

A. Mendis and M. Rosenberg, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 32, 419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mitic, S.

S. Mitic, R. Sütterlin, A. V. Ivlev, H. Höffner, M. H. Thoma, S. Zhdanov, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 235001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morfill, G. E.

S. Mitic, R. Sütterlin, A. V. Ivlev, H. Höffner, M. H. Thoma, S. Zhdanov, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 235001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosley, L. M.

L. M. Mosley, K. A. Hunter, and W. A. Ducker, Environ. Sci. Technol. 37, 3303 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nefedov, A. P.

Onofri, F.

F. Onofri, K. Ren, G. Grisola, J. Nucl. Mater. 390–391, 1093 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Onofri, F. R. A.

F. R. A. Onofri, M. Wozniak, S. Barbosa, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 51, 228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, O. F.

Ren, K.

F. Onofri, K. Ren, G. Grisola, J. Nucl. Mater. 390–391, 1093 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, M.

A. Mendis and M. Rosenberg, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 32, 419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Silva, V.

R. Martins, H. Aguas, I. Ferreira, V. Silva, A. Cabrita, E. Fortunato, Thin Solid Films 383, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stefanovic, I.

J. Berndt, E. Kovačević, I. Stefanović, O. Stepanović, S. H. Hong, L. Boufendi, and J. Winter, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 49, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stepanovic, O.

J. Berndt, E. Kovačević, I. Stefanović, O. Stepanović, S. H. Hong, L. Boufendi, and J. Winter, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 49, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stoffels, E.

W. W. Stoffels, E. Stoffels, G. H. P. M. Swinkels, M. Boufnichel, and G. M. W. Kroesen, Phys. Rev. E 59, 2302(1999).
[CrossRef]

Stoffels, W. W.

W. W. Stoffels, E. Stoffels, G. H. P. M. Swinkels, M. Boufnichel, and G. M. W. Kroesen, Phys. Rev. E 59, 2302(1999).
[CrossRef]

Sütterlin, R.

S. Mitic, R. Sütterlin, A. V. Ivlev, H. Höffner, M. H. Thoma, S. Zhdanov, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 235001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swinkels, G. H. P. M.

W. W. Stoffels, E. Stoffels, G. H. P. M. Swinkels, M. Boufnichel, and G. M. W. Kroesen, Phys. Rev. E 59, 2302(1999).
[CrossRef]

Taubenblatt, M. A.

J. S. Batchelder and M. A. Taubenblatt, “Measurement of size and refractive index of particles using the complex forward-scattered electromagnetic field,” U. S. patent 5,037,202 (6 August 1991).

Thoma, M. H.

S. Mitic, R. Sütterlin, A. V. Ivlev, H. Höffner, M. H. Thoma, S. Zhdanov, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 235001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaulina, O. S.

Winter, J.

J. Berndt, E. Kovačević, I. Stefanović, O. Stepanović, S. H. Hong, L. Boufendi, and J. Winter, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 49, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Hong and J. Winter, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064303(2006).
[CrossRef]

Wozniak, M.

F. R. A. Onofri, M. Wozniak, S. Barbosa, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 51, 228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhdanov, S.

S. Mitic, R. Sütterlin, A. V. Ivlev, H. Höffner, M. H. Thoma, S. Zhdanov, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 235001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. (1)

J. Kreuter, Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 47, 65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (1)

A. Mendis and M. Rosenberg, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 32, 419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Contrib. Plasma Phys. (2)

J. Berndt, E. Kovačević, I. Stefanović, O. Stepanović, S. H. Hong, L. Boufendi, and J. Winter, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 49, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. R. A. Onofri, M. Wozniak, S. Barbosa, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 51, 228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

L. M. Mosley, K. A. Hunter, and W. A. Ducker, Environ. Sci. Technol. 37, 3303 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S.-K. Hong and J. Winter, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064303(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Mater. (1)

F. Onofri, K. Ren, G. Grisola, J. Nucl. Mater. 390–391, 1093 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

W. W. Stoffels, E. Stoffels, G. H. P. M. Swinkels, M. Boufnichel, and G. M. W. Kroesen, Phys. Rev. E 59, 2302(1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Mitic, R. Sütterlin, A. V. Ivlev, H. Höffner, M. H. Thoma, S. Zhdanov, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 235001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

A. R. Jones, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Martins, H. Aguas, I. Ferreira, V. Silva, A. Cabrita, E. Fortunato, Thin Solid Films 383, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

We used a Matlab set of Mie-scattering functions by C. Mätzler for the calculation of theoretical surfaces R(λ,r) available at http://www.hiwater.org/Mie_calcs.html.

J. S. Batchelder and M. A. Taubenblatt, “Measurement of size and refractive index of particles using the complex forward-scattered electromagnetic field,” U. S. patent 5,037,202 (6 August 1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the experimental setup for the characterization of particle growth in a plasma. The particles are grown in a discharge created by the application of RF voltage to the coil. Suspension of grown particles was illuminated with the white light from a tungsten halogen lamp and scattered light was registered by two spectrometers, looking at angles α 1 and α 2 with respect to the incident light beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally measured surface R ( λ , t ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the measurements of r ( t ) by white light scattering (solid lines for different λ 0 s) and by SEM (circles). Good agreement between different r ( t ) , determined with different λ 0 is demonstrated. Particle radii, measured by SEM, also match the in situ measured values well within the error bars.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of the measurements of n ( λ ) . Full symbols represent the real part, empty symbols the imaginary part.

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