Abstract

We report the first (to our knowledge) far-field ghost images formed with phase-sensitive classical-state light and compare them with ghost images of the same object formed with conventional phase-insensitive classical-state light. To generate signal and reference beams with phase-sensitive cross correlation, we used a pair of synchronized spatial light modulators that imposed random, spatially varying, anticorrelated phase modulation on the outputs from 50-50 beam splitting of a laser beam. In agreement with theory, we found the phase-sensitive image to be inverted, whereas the phase-insensitive image is erect, with both having comparable spatial resolutions and signal-to-noise ratios.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043809 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 405 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Janesick and T. Elliott, in Astronomical CCD Observing and Reduction Techniques, S.B.Howell, ed., Vol. 23 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1992), pp. 1–67.

2010

2008

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bache, M.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berardi, V.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, E.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deacon, K. S.

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, T.

J. Janesick and T. Elliott, in Astronomical CCD Observing and Reduction Techniques, S.B.Howell, ed., Vol. 23 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1992), pp. 1–67.

Erkmen, B. I.

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferri, F.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatti, A.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janesick, J.

J. Janesick and T. Elliott, in Astronomical CCD Observing and Reduction Techniques, S.B.Howell, ed., Vol. 23 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1992), pp. 1–67.

Lugiato, L. A.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magatti, D.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyers, R.

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pittman, T. B.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scarcelli, G.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergienko, A. V.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, J. H.

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y.

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, Y. H.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D. V.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Phys. Rev. A

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. Janesick and T. Elliott, in Astronomical CCD Observing and Reduction Techniques, S.B.Howell, ed., Vol. 23 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1992), pp. 1–67.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. PBS, polarizing beam splitter; HWP, half-wave plate; HR, high-reflection mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sample single-frame speckle pattern as imaged by the CCD. The artifact is due to the SLMs’ 83 % pixel fill factor. (b) Portion of a USAF spatial-resolution transmission mask used as the object. (c) Phase-insensitive and (d) phase-sensitive far-field ghost images, each averaged over 18,640 realizations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MIT-logo ghost images after 7000 realizations for (a) phase-insensitive and (b) phase-sensitive light, showing image inversion in (b). The images are individually normalized, with the noise levels clipped for improved visibility. The bright-spot artifact at the center prevents us from obtaining an image in that small region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Far-field ghost imaging under (a), (b) loose focusing ( w 0 = 150 μm ) and (c), (d)  tight focusing ( w 0 = 50 μm ), with the SLM located at a distance of 2.75 × the Rayleigh range z R . The mask is an off-center letter M. Phase-insensitive images in (a) and (c) are not affected, but phase-sensitive measurements in (b) and (d) show degradation, which is severe for tight focusing in (d).

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