Abstract

Optical properties of Al nanogrids of different pitches and gaps were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation predicted that surface plasmons at the air/Al interface would enhance ultraviolet transmission through the subwavelength gaps of the nanogrid, making it an effective electrode on GaN-based photodetectors to compensate for the lack of transparent electrode and high p–type doping. The predicted transmission enhancement was verified by confocal scanning optical microscopy performed at 365nm. The quality of the nanogrids fabricated by electron-beam lithography was verified by near-field scanning optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Based on the results, the pitch and gap of the nanogrids can be optimized for the best trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmission at different wavelengths. Based on different cutoff wavelengths, the nanogrids can also double as a filter to render photodetectors solar-blind.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Marusk, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 7191 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Y. Xu and B. M. Sadler, IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 67 (2008).
  3. J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, B. Hertog, J. Xie, A. Dabiran, and A. Osinsky, Proc. SPIE 6294, 62940N1 (2006).
  4. J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, A. Osinsky, H. Seigneur, W. V. Schoenfeld, and L. Chernyak, in Technical Digest of Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (2007), Vol. 201.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Li and S. Y. Chou, Opt. Express 18, 931 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. H. Ritchie and H. B. Eldridge, Phys. Rev. 126, 1935(1962).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. R. H. Webb, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, and V. Pruneri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Li and S. Y. Chou, Opt. Express 18, 931 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

Q. Gan, L. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, Opt. Lett. 34, 1324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, Adv. Mater. 21, 3540 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, L. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Mazuir, J. T. Deng, J. C. M. Hwang, and W. V. Schoenfeld, Proc. SPIE 7205, 72050R (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Z. Y. Xu and B. M. Sadler, IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 67 (2008).

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, B. Hertog, J. Xie, A. Dabiran, and A. Osinsky, Proc. SPIE 6294, 62940N1 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Marusk, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 7191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

H. F. Ghaemi, Tineke Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. H. Webb, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

R. H. Ritchie and H. B. Eldridge, Phys. Rev. 126, 1935(1962).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, Adv. Mater. 21, 3540 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F. J.

Q. Gan, L. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, L. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, Opt. Lett. 34, 1324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, Adv. Mater. 21, 3540 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. L.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, and V. Pruneri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chernyak, L.

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, A. Osinsky, H. Seigneur, W. V. Schoenfeld, and L. Chernyak, in Technical Digest of Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (2007), Vol. 201.

Chou, S. Y.

Dabiran, A.

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, B. Hertog, J. Xie, A. Dabiran, and A. Osinsky, Proc. SPIE 6294, 62940N1 (2006).

Deng, J.

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, B. Hertog, J. Xie, A. Dabiran, and A. Osinsky, Proc. SPIE 6294, 62940N1 (2006).

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, A. Osinsky, H. Seigneur, W. V. Schoenfeld, and L. Chernyak, in Technical Digest of Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (2007), Vol. 201.

Deng, J. T.

C. Mazuir, J. T. Deng, J. C. M. Hwang, and W. V. Schoenfeld, Proc. SPIE 7205, 72050R (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

Q. Gan, L. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, L. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, Opt. Lett. 34, 1324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ghaemi, Tineke Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eldridge, H. B.

R. H. Ritchie and H. B. Eldridge, Phys. Rev. 126, 1935(1962).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Q.

Q. Gan, L. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, L. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, Opt. Lett. 34, 1324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

H. F. Ghaemi, Tineke Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, D. S.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, and V. Pruneri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grupp, D. E.

H. F. Ghaemi, Tineke Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Halder, S.

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, B. Hertog, J. Xie, A. Dabiran, and A. Osinsky, Proc. SPIE 6294, 62940N1 (2006).

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, A. Osinsky, H. Seigneur, W. V. Schoenfeld, and L. Chernyak, in Technical Digest of Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (2007), Vol. 201.

Hertog, B.

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, B. Hertog, J. Xie, A. Dabiran, and A. Osinsky, Proc. SPIE 6294, 62940N1 (2006).

Hwang, J. C. M.

C. Mazuir, J. T. Deng, J. C. M. Hwang, and W. V. Schoenfeld, Proc. SPIE 7205, 72050R (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, B. Hertog, J. Xie, A. Dabiran, and A. Osinsky, Proc. SPIE 6294, 62940N1 (2006).

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, A. Osinsky, H. Seigneur, W. V. Schoenfeld, and L. Chernyak, in Technical Digest of Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (2007), Vol. 201.

Khan, M. A.

M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Marusk, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 7191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuokstis, E.

M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Marusk, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 7191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ghaemi, Tineke Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Liu, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, Adv. Mater. 21, 3540 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marusk, H. P.

M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Marusk, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 7191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazuir, C.

C. Mazuir, J. T. Deng, J. C. M. Hwang, and W. V. Schoenfeld, Proc. SPIE 7205, 72050R (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Osinsky, A.

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, B. Hertog, J. Xie, A. Dabiran, and A. Osinsky, Proc. SPIE 6294, 62940N1 (2006).

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, A. Osinsky, H. Seigneur, W. V. Schoenfeld, and L. Chernyak, in Technical Digest of Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (2007), Vol. 201.

Pala, R. A.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, Adv. Mater. 21, 3540 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pruneri, V.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, and V. Pruneri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie and H. B. Eldridge, Phys. Rev. 126, 1935(1962).
[CrossRef]

Sadler, B. M.

Z. Y. Xu and B. M. Sadler, IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 67 (2008).

Schoenfeld, W. V.

C. Mazuir, J. T. Deng, J. C. M. Hwang, and W. V. Schoenfeld, Proc. SPIE 7205, 72050R (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, A. Osinsky, H. Seigneur, W. V. Schoenfeld, and L. Chernyak, in Technical Digest of Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (2007), Vol. 201.

Seigneur, H.

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, A. Osinsky, H. Seigneur, W. V. Schoenfeld, and L. Chernyak, in Technical Digest of Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (2007), Vol. 201.

Shatalov, M.

M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Marusk, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 7191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, Tineke

H. F. Ghaemi, Tineke Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. M.

M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Marusk, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 7191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R. H.

R. H. Webb, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427 (1996).
[CrossRef]

White, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, Adv. Mater. 21, 3540 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, B. Hertog, J. Xie, A. Dabiran, and A. Osinsky, Proc. SPIE 6294, 62940N1 (2006).

Xu, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Xu and B. M. Sadler, IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 67 (2008).

Zhou, L.

Q. Gan, L. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, L. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, Opt. Lett. 34, 1324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, Adv. Mater. 21, 3540 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, and V. Pruneri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Z. Y. Xu and B. M. Sadler, IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 67 (2008).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Q. Gan, L. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Marusk, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 7191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. H. Ritchie and H. B. Eldridge, Phys. Rev. 126, 1935(1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. F. Ghaemi, Tineke Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. Mazuir, J. T. Deng, J. C. M. Hwang, and W. V. Schoenfeld, Proc. SPIE 7205, 72050R (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, B. Hertog, J. Xie, A. Dabiran, and A. Osinsky, Proc. SPIE 6294, 62940N1 (2006).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

R. H. Webb, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Deng, S. Halder, J. C. M. Hwang, A. Osinsky, H. Seigneur, W. V. Schoenfeld, and L. Chernyak, in Technical Digest of Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (2007), Vol. 201.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an Al nanogrid on a sapphire substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated transmission spectra of 365 nm light through Al nanogrids of various pitches/gaps and 1 μm into the sapphire substrate. The simulated intensity is normalized by that, without any Al nanogrid but attenuated by the reflection from the air/sapphire interface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three-dimensional plot of simulated transmission of 365 nm light through Al nanogrids of various pitches/gaps and 1 μm into the sapphire substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated electric field intensity along the x direction on the air/Al interface of a two by two nanogrid of 100 nm gap and (a)  355 nm , (b)  400 nm , and (c)  500 nm pitches. (d), (e), and (f) are corresponding patterns on the diagonal cross section of the sapphire substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission through the nanogrid/ sapphire stack measured by using CSOM with an unpolarized 365 nm source and normalized by that through sapphire only. Insets show SEM (left) and NSOM (right) images of a nanogrid with 280 nm pitch and 170 nm gap.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ P = λ 0 1 + 1 / ε Al ,
λ P = p / I 2 + J 2 ,

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