Abstract

In this Letter we report on an all optical-fiber approach to the synthesis of ultralow-noise microwave signals by photodetection of femtosecond laser pulses. We use a cascade of Mach–Zehnder fiber interferometers to realize stable and efficient repetition rate multiplication. This technique increases the signal level of the photodetected microwave signal by close to 18dB. That in turn allows us to demonstrate a residual phase-noise level of 118dBc/Hz at 1Hz and 160dBc/Hz at 10MHz from a 12GHz signal. The residual noise floor of the fiber multiplier and photodetection system alone is around 164dBc/Hz at the same offset frequency, which is very close to the fundamental shot-noise floor.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, Opt. Lett. 35, 2022 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. A. Diddams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B51 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photon. 5, 186 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Weyers, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Phys. Rev. A 79, 031803R (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. N. Ivanov and M. E. Tobar, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 263 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in Proceedings of the 2008 International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 811–814.
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053829 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, M. Notcutt, R. Drullinger, T. Rosenband, and J. C. Bergquist, Opt. Express 19, 3471(2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. A. Diddams, M. Kirchner, T. Fortier, D. Braje, A. M. Weiner, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Express 17, 3331 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Xia and L. R. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 165 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Min, Y. Zhao, and S. Fleming, Opt. Commun. 277, 411(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. A. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic generation of low-phase-noise microwave signals,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).
  18. The shot noise is estimated using the classical formula applied to SSB phase noise and corrected for losses and HLPD response [see also P. J. Winzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2424 (1997)].
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    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 886 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (6)

N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photon. 5, 186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, M. Notcutt, R. Drullinger, T. Rosenband, and J. C. Bergquist, Opt. Express 19, 3471(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 36, 3260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, Opt. Lett. 35, 2022 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

S. Weyers, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Phys. Rev. A 79, 031803R (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Ivanov and M. E. Tobar, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, M. Kirchner, T. Fortier, D. Braje, A. M. Weiner, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Express 17, 3331 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Min, Y. Zhao, and S. Fleming, Opt. Commun. 277, 411(2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. Xia and L. R. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Abgrall, M.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, M. Notcutt, R. Drullinger, T. Rosenband, and J. C. Bergquist, Opt. Express 19, 3471(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bize, S.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boudot, R.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

Braje, D.

Chen, L. R.

B. Xia and L. R. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Datta, S.

J. A. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

J. A. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 36, 3260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, M. Kirchner, T. Fortier, D. Braje, A. M. Weiner, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Express 17, 3331 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drullinger, R.

Eliyahu, D.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in Proceedings of the 2008 International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 811–814.
[CrossRef]

English, E. M. L.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, S.

S. Min, Y. Zhao, and S. Fleming, Opt. Commun. 277, 411(2007).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T.

Fortier, T. M.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 36, 3260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guéna, J.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hati, A.

J. A. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Ivanov, E. N.

E. N. Ivanov and M. E. Tobar, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 36, 3260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, A.

J. A. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kersalé, Y.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kirchner, M.

Kirchner, M. S.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kirchner, S.

Kolner, B. H.

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Le Coq, Y.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic generation of low-phase-noise microwave signals,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Leibrandt, D. R.

Lemke, N.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 36, 3260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lemonde, P.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic generation of low-phase-noise microwave signals,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Lipphardt, B.

S. Weyers, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Phys. Rev. A 79, 031803R (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lodewyck, J.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic generation of low-phase-noise microwave signals,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Ludlow, A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, A. D.

Luiten, A. N.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Magalhaes, D. V.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in Proceedings of the 2008 International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 811–814.
[CrossRef]

Mandache, C.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Millo, J.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Min, S.

S. Min, Y. Zhao, and S. Fleming, Opt. Commun. 277, 411(2007).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, C.

J. A. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photon. 5, 186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Notcutt, M.

Oates, C. W.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 36, 3260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Quinlan, F.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 36, 3260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, M. Notcutt, R. Drullinger, T. Rosenband, and J. C. Bergquist, Opt. Express 19, 3471(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santarelli, G.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic generation of low-phase-noise microwave signals,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Schnatz, H.

S. Weyers, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Phys. Rev. A 79, 031803R (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R. P.

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, D.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in Proceedings of the 2008 International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 811–814.
[CrossRef]

Seidelin, S.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic generation of low-phase-noise microwave signals,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. A.

Thorpe, M. J.

Tobar, M. E.

E. N. Ivanov and M. E. Tobar, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

Westergaard, P. G.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weyers, S.

S. Weyers, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Phys. Rev. A 79, 031803R (2009).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

The shot noise is estimated using the classical formula applied to SSB phase noise and corrected for losses and HLPD response [see also P. J. Winzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2424 (1997)].

Xia, B.

B. Xia and L. R. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 886 (2011).
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W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic generation of low-phase-noise microwave signals,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Zhao, Y.

S. Min, Y. Zhao, and S. Fleming, Opt. Commun. 277, 411(2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic generation of low-phase-noise microwave signals,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Xia and L. R. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

J. A. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (2)

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Ivanov and M. E. Tobar, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photon. 5, 186 (2011).
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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Min, Y. Zhao, and S. Fleming, Opt. Commun. 277, 411(2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Weyers, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Phys. Rev. A 79, 031803R (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in Proceedings of the 2008 International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 811–814.
[CrossRef]

The shot noise is estimated using the classical formula applied to SSB phase noise and corrected for losses and HLPD response [see also P. J. Winzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2424 (1997)].

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

An illustration of the cascaded MZI scheme used to achieve a pulse rate multiplication.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photodiode (HLPD) output driven with 10 mW optical power: (a) after PRRM × 8 , (b) driven by the unmultiplied FOFC output.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup. USL: ultrastable laser, PRRM: pulse repetition rate multiplier, HLPD: highly linear photodiode, FFT: fast Fourier transform analyzer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Residual phase noise for a single PRRM system (measured with a common FOFC). The dotted line estimates the shot-noise limit for these conditions ( 11 mW optical power, 8 mA photocurrent). (b) Residual phase noise for a single complete optical-to-microwave system, i.e., an FOFC followed by a PRRM and HLPD (measured with two independent FOFCs). The dashed line represents the typical phase noise level that would be achievable without the PRRM.

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