Abstract

We propose an efficient optical coupler between a submicrometer-sized silicon waveguide on a silicon photonic chip and a multi-micrometer wide polymer waveguide on an optical printed circuit board for interchip optical networks. We show low coupling loss <0.4dB with high lateral and angular tolerance to misalignment so that coupling can be done by automatic pick-and-place equipments with high throughput and low cost. The coupler has a wide optical bandwidth from 1470 to 1650nm.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Petracca, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS, 2008), 2789.
  4. C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).
  5. K. B. Yoon, I.-K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2119 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 54 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. ESIA, JEITA, KSIA, TSIA, and SIA, “The international technology roadmap for semiconductors” (2007).
  9. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 430 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 14, 9430 (2006).
  11. Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, Opt. Express 16, 4309 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Wenzel, R. Güther, A. M. Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, and P. Bienstman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 64 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. H. Wong, J. Zhou, and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2110 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, Opt. Express 16, 4309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 14, 9430 (2006).

H. Wenzel, R. Güther, A. M. Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, and P. Bienstman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

W. H. Wong, J. Zhou, and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 54 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S. H.

Almeida, V. R.

Asanovic, K.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Batten, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Beausoleil, R. G.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, Opt. Express 16, 4309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, C.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Petracca, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS, 2008), 2789.

Beyeler, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

H. Wenzel, R. Güther, A. M. Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, and P. Bienstman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Binkert, N.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Petracca, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS, 2008), 2789.

Cho, I.-K.

Dangel, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davis, A.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dellmann, L.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 54 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, Opt. Express 16, 4309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiorentino, M.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gmur, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Güther, R.

H. Wenzel, R. Güther, A. M. Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, and P. Bienstman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hamelin, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hanqing, L.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Heo, Y. U.

Holzwarth, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Horst, F.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoyt, J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Jeong, M. Y.

Joshi, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Jouppi, N. P.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Khilo, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Lamprecht, T.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. J.

Lipson, M.

Manipatruni, S.

McLaren, M.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morf, T.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moss, B.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Offrein, B. J.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oggioni, S.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Orcutt, J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Panepucci, R.

Park, H.-H.

Petracca, M.

M. Petracca, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS, 2008), 2789.

Popovic, M.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Pun, E. Y. B.

W. H. Wong, J. Zhou, and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Rhee, B.-H.

Rho, B. S.

Santori, C. M.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 14, 9430 (2006).

Schreiber, R. S.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shacklette, L. W.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 54 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 14, 9430 (2006).

Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, A. M.

H. Wenzel, R. Güther, A. M. Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, and P. Bienstman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Spillane, S. M.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spreafico, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stojanovic, V.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

Vantrease, D.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wenzel, H.

H. Wenzel, R. Güther, A. M. Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, and P. Bienstman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. H.

W. H. Wong, J. Zhou, and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, Opt. Express 16, 4309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 14, 9430 (2006).

Yoon, K. B.

Zhou, J.

W. H. Wong, J. Zhou, and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, Appl. Phys. A 95, 989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. H. Wong, J. Zhou, and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Wenzel, R. Güther, A. M. Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, and P. Bienstman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (1)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 54 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

M. Petracca, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS, 2008), 2789.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, L. Hanqing, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2008).

ESIA, JEITA, KSIA, TSIA, and SIA, “The international technology roadmap for semiconductors” (2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the proposed coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distribution of the H field as light adiabatically couples from a 0.45 μm wide and 0.25 μm high silicon waveguide to a 5 μm wide and 1.25 μm high polymer waveguide with SU-8 ( n = 1.58 ) core and NOA61 ( n = 1.54 ) cladding [14]. (a) silicon taper is aligned with the center of the polymer waveguide. (b) silicon taper is misaligned by 2 μm with respect to the center of the polymer waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coupling efficiency of the coupler versus the lateral misalignment between the silicon nanotaper and polymer waveguide center. Red solid line: a 200 μm long nanotaper with 0.1 μm wide taper tip coupled to a 5 μm wide polymer waveguide. Blue dashed line: a 500 μm long nanotaper with 0.05 μm wide taper tip coupled to a 12 μm wide polymer waveguide. The inset shows coupling efficiency versus the tip width of the silicon taper. Red solid line: a 200 μm long nanotaper coupled to a 5 μm wide polymer waveguide with a 2 μm misalignment. Blue dashed line: a 500 μm long nanotaper coupled to a 12 μm wide polymer waveguide with a 3.8 μm misalignment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Design of taper shape. (a) Linear taper: coupling efficiency (solid), loss to second-order TE mode (dashed) and loss to third-order TE mode (dotted) versus the taper length. Red: no misalignment. Brown: 1.6 μm misalignment. Green: 2 μm misalignment. (b) Coupling coefficient from the fundamental TE mode to the second-order TE mode at different posistion along the taper. (c) The optimized taper shape (d) Coupling efficiency for the taper with the optimized shape versus the taper length. Red (darkest): no misalignment. Brown: 1.6 μm misalignment. Green (lightest): 2 μm misalignment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Distribution of the H field when the misalignment between the silicon taper and the center of the polymer waveguide changes from 2 μm at the beginning of the taper to 1.5 μm at the tip of the taper (b) Coupling efficiency versus misalignment at the taper tip for different tilt angles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Coupling efficiency versus the lateral misalignment between the 200 nm long silicon nanotaper and 5 μm wide polymer waveguide center. Different colors and markers stand for different wavelengths.

Metrics