Abstract

We demonstrate the feasibility of a novel and nonionizing process for bladder imaging in vivo, called photoacoustic cystography (PAC). Using a photoacoustic imaging system, we have successfully imaged a rat bladder filled with clinically used Methylene Blue (MB) dye. An image contrast of ~8 was achieved. Further, spectroscopic PAC confirmed the accumulation of MB in the bladder. Using a laser pulse energy of less than 1mJ/cm2 (1/20 of the ANSI safety limit), a deeply (1.2cm) positioned bladder in biological tissues was clearly visible in the PA image. Our results suggest that PAC can potentially provide a nonionizing, relatively cheap, and portable tool for bladder mapping. Among our clinical interests, nonionizing PAC with an injection of MB can potentially monitor vesicoureteral reflux in children.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. Wang, C. S. D. Lee, W. C. Waltzer, J. Liu, H. Xie, Z. Yuan, and Y. Pan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034009 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010

C. Nicolau, L. Bunesch, L. Peri, R. Salvador, J. M. Corral, C. Mallofre, and C. Sebastia, Brit. J. Radiol. , doi:10.1259/bjr/43400531 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, Chem. Rev. 110, 2756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, ACS Nano 4, 4559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, Radiology 255, 442 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao, M. Jiang, J. Hu, A. Fawzi, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, C. A. Puliafito, and H. F. Zhang, Opt. Express 18, 3967 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Homan, J. Shah, S. Gomez, H. Gensler, A. Karpiouk, L. Brannon-Peppas, and S. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. Todd, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Arkers, S. Achilefu, J. Margenthaler, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. Todd, L. Jankovic, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Stratton, J. C. Pope, IV, M. C. Adams, J. W. Brock, III, and J. C. Thomas, J. Urol. 183, 2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, Med. Phys. 36, 4084 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

K. Darge, Pediatr. Radiol. 38, 40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Z. Wang, C. S. D. Lee, W. C. Waltzer, J. Liu, H. Xie, Z. Yuan, and Y. Pan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Song and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 060503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. Chen, A. L. Hsiao, C. L. Moore, J. D. Dziura, and K. A. Santucci, Pediatrics 115, 1631 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. L. McEwing, N. G. Anderson, S. Hellewell, and J. Mitchell, Pediatr. Radiol. 32, 853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

J. S. Elder, C. A. Peters, B. S. Arant, D. H. Ewalt, C. E. Hawrey, R. S. Hurwitz, T. S. Parrott, H. M. Snyder, R. A. Weiss, S. H. Woolf, and V. Hasselblad, J. Urol. 157, 1846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achilefu, S.

C. Kim, E. Todd, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Arkers, S. Achilefu, J. Margenthaler, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, M. C.

K. L. Stratton, J. C. Pope, IV, M. C. Adams, J. W. Brock, III, and J. C. Thomas, J. Urol. 183, 2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, N. G.

R. L. McEwing, N. G. Anderson, S. Hellewell, and J. Mitchell, Pediatr. Radiol. 32, 853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arant, B. S.

J. S. Elder, C. A. Peters, B. S. Arant, D. H. Ewalt, C. E. Hawrey, R. S. Hurwitz, T. S. Parrott, H. M. Snyder, R. A. Weiss, S. H. Woolf, and V. Hasselblad, J. Urol. 157, 1846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arkers, W. J.

C. Kim, E. Todd, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Arkers, S. Achilefu, J. Margenthaler, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Au, L.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, ACS Nano 4, 4559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brannon-Peppas, L.

K. Homan, J. Shah, S. Gomez, H. Gensler, A. Karpiouk, L. Brannon-Peppas, and S. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brecht, H. P.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brock, J. W.

K. L. Stratton, J. C. Pope, IV, M. C. Adams, J. W. Brock, III, and J. C. Thomas, J. Urol. 183, 2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunesch, L.

C. Nicolau, L. Bunesch, L. Peri, R. Salvador, J. M. Corral, C. Mallofre, and C. Sebastia, Brit. J. Radiol. , doi:10.1259/bjr/43400531 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, ACS Nano 4, 4559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, A. L. Hsiao, C. L. Moore, J. D. Dziura, and K. A. Santucci, Pediatrics 115, 1631 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, E. C.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, ACS Nano 4, 4559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cobley, C. M.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, ACS Nano 4, 4559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conjusteau, A.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corral, J. M.

C. Nicolau, L. Bunesch, L. Peri, R. Salvador, J. M. Corral, C. Mallofre, and C. Sebastia, Brit. J. Radiol. , doi:10.1259/bjr/43400531 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darge, K.

K. Darge, Pediatr. Radiol. 38, 40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dziura, J. D.

L. Chen, A. L. Hsiao, C. L. Moore, J. D. Dziura, and K. A. Santucci, Pediatrics 115, 1631 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elder, J. S.

J. S. Elder, C. A. Peters, B. S. Arant, D. H. Ewalt, C. E. Hawrey, R. S. Hurwitz, T. S. Parrott, H. M. Snyder, R. A. Weiss, S. H. Woolf, and V. Hasselblad, J. Urol. 157, 1846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S.

K. Homan, J. Shah, S. Gomez, H. Gensler, A. Karpiouk, L. Brannon-Peppas, and S. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ermilov, S. A.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ewalt, D. H.

J. S. Elder, C. A. Peters, B. S. Arant, D. H. Ewalt, C. E. Hawrey, R. S. Hurwitz, T. S. Parrott, H. M. Snyder, R. A. Weiss, S. H. Woolf, and V. Hasselblad, J. Urol. 157, 1846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Favazza, C.

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, Chem. Rev. 110, 2756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, ACS Nano 4, 4559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fawzi, A.

Fronheiser, M. P.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, F.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, ACS Nano 4, 4559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, Radiology 255, 442 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gensler, H.

K. Homan, J. Shah, S. Gomez, H. Gensler, A. Karpiouk, L. Brannon-Peppas, and S. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomez, S.

K. Homan, J. Shah, S. Gomez, H. Gensler, A. Karpiouk, L. Brannon-Peppas, and S. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, Med. Phys. 36, 4084 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasselblad, V.

J. S. Elder, C. A. Peters, B. S. Arant, D. H. Ewalt, C. E. Hawrey, R. S. Hurwitz, T. S. Parrott, H. M. Snyder, R. A. Weiss, S. H. Woolf, and V. Hasselblad, J. Urol. 157, 1846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawrey, C. E.

J. S. Elder, C. A. Peters, B. S. Arant, D. H. Ewalt, C. E. Hawrey, R. S. Hurwitz, T. S. Parrott, H. M. Snyder, R. A. Weiss, S. H. Woolf, and V. Hasselblad, J. Urol. 157, 1846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellewell, S.

R. L. McEwing, N. G. Anderson, S. Hellewell, and J. Mitchell, Pediatr. Radiol. 32, 853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homan, K.

K. Homan, J. Shah, S. Gomez, H. Gensler, A. Karpiouk, L. Brannon-Peppas, and S. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiao, A. L.

L. Chen, A. L. Hsiao, C. L. Moore, J. D. Dziura, and K. A. Santucci, Pediatrics 115, 1631 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

Hurwitz, R. S.

J. S. Elder, C. A. Peters, B. S. Arant, D. H. Ewalt, C. E. Hawrey, R. S. Hurwitz, T. S. Parrott, H. M. Snyder, R. A. Weiss, S. H. Woolf, and V. Hasselblad, J. Urol. 157, 1846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jankovic, L.

C. Kim, E. Todd, L. Jankovic, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, E. Todd, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Arkers, S. Achilefu, J. Margenthaler, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, M.

Jiao, S.

Karpiouk, A.

K. Homan, J. Shah, S. Gomez, H. Gensler, A. Karpiouk, L. Brannon-Peppas, and S. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

C. Kim, E. Todd, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Arkers, S. Achilefu, J. Margenthaler, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. Todd, L. Jankovic, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, Radiology 255, 442 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, ACS Nano 4, 4559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, Chem. Rev. 110, 2756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. S. D.

Z. Wang, C. S. D. Lee, W. C. Waltzer, J. Liu, H. Xie, Z. Yuan, and Y. Pan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, Med. Phys. 36, 4084 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Z. Wang, C. S. D. Lee, W. C. Waltzer, J. Liu, H. Xie, Z. Yuan, and Y. Pan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallofre, C.

C. Nicolau, L. Bunesch, L. Peri, R. Salvador, J. M. Corral, C. Mallofre, and C. Sebastia, Brit. J. Radiol. , doi:10.1259/bjr/43400531 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margenthaler, J.

C. Kim, E. Todd, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Arkers, S. Achilefu, J. Margenthaler, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

C. Kim, E. Todd, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Arkers, S. Achilefu, J. Margenthaler, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McEwing, R. L.

R. L. McEwing, N. G. Anderson, S. Hellewell, and J. Mitchell, Pediatr. Radiol. 32, 853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, K.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, J.

R. L. McEwing, N. G. Anderson, S. Hellewell, and J. Mitchell, Pediatr. Radiol. 32, 853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, C. L.

L. Chen, A. L. Hsiao, C. L. Moore, J. D. Dziura, and K. A. Santucci, Pediatrics 115, 1631 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolau, C.

C. Nicolau, L. Bunesch, L. Peri, R. Salvador, J. M. Corral, C. Mallofre, and C. Sebastia, Brit. J. Radiol. , doi:10.1259/bjr/43400531 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Y.

Z. Wang, C. S. D. Lee, W. C. Waltzer, J. Liu, H. Xie, Z. Yuan, and Y. Pan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parrott, T. S.

J. S. Elder, C. A. Peters, B. S. Arant, D. H. Ewalt, C. E. Hawrey, R. S. Hurwitz, T. S. Parrott, H. M. Snyder, R. A. Weiss, S. H. Woolf, and V. Hasselblad, J. Urol. 157, 1846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pashley, M.

C. Kim, E. Todd, L. Jankovic, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, E. Todd, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Arkers, S. Achilefu, J. Margenthaler, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peri, L.

C. Nicolau, L. Bunesch, L. Peri, R. Salvador, J. M. Corral, C. Mallofre, and C. Sebastia, Brit. J. Radiol. , doi:10.1259/bjr/43400531 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, C. A.

J. S. Elder, C. A. Peters, B. S. Arant, D. H. Ewalt, C. E. Hawrey, R. S. Hurwitz, T. S. Parrott, H. M. Snyder, R. A. Weiss, S. H. Woolf, and V. Hasselblad, J. Urol. 157, 1846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, J. C.

K. L. Stratton, J. C. Pope, IV, M. C. Adams, J. W. Brock, III, and J. C. Thomas, J. Urol. 183, 2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

Salvador, R.

C. Nicolau, L. Bunesch, L. Peri, R. Salvador, J. M. Corral, C. Mallofre, and C. Sebastia, Brit. J. Radiol. , doi:10.1259/bjr/43400531 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santucci, K. A.

L. Chen, A. L. Hsiao, C. L. Moore, J. D. Dziura, and K. A. Santucci, Pediatrics 115, 1631 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sebastia, C.

C. Nicolau, L. Bunesch, L. Peri, R. Salvador, J. M. Corral, C. Mallofre, and C. Sebastia, Brit. J. Radiol. , doi:10.1259/bjr/43400531 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, J.

K. Homan, J. Shah, S. Gomez, H. Gensler, A. Karpiouk, L. Brannon-Peppas, and S. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

Snyder, H. M.

J. S. Elder, C. A. Peters, B. S. Arant, D. H. Ewalt, C. E. Hawrey, R. S. Hurwitz, T. S. Parrott, H. M. Snyder, R. A. Weiss, S. H. Woolf, and V. Hasselblad, J. Urol. 157, 1846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, K.

K. Song and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 060503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, K. H.

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, Radiology 255, 442 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, ACS Nano 4, 4559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stratton, K. L.

K. L. Stratton, J. C. Pope, IV, M. C. Adams, J. W. Brock, III, and J. C. Thomas, J. Urol. 183, 2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, R.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, J. C.

K. L. Stratton, J. C. Pope, IV, M. C. Adams, J. W. Brock, III, and J. C. Thomas, J. Urol. 183, 2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Todd, E.

C. Kim, E. Todd, L. Jankovic, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, E. Todd, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Arkers, S. Achilefu, J. Margenthaler, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waltzer, W. C.

Z. Wang, C. S. D. Lee, W. C. Waltzer, J. Liu, H. Xie, Z. Yuan, and Y. Pan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, Chem. Rev. 110, 2756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, ACS Nano 4, 4559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, Radiology 255, 442 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. Todd, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Arkers, S. Achilefu, J. Margenthaler, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. Todd, L. Jankovic, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, Med. Phys. 36, 4084 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Song and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 060503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, C. S. D. Lee, W. C. Waltzer, J. Liu, H. Xie, Z. Yuan, and Y. Pan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, R. A.

J. S. Elder, C. A. Peters, B. S. Arant, D. H. Ewalt, C. E. Hawrey, R. S. Hurwitz, T. S. Parrott, H. M. Snyder, R. A. Weiss, S. H. Woolf, and V. Hasselblad, J. Urol. 157, 1846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woolf, S. H.

J. S. Elder, C. A. Peters, B. S. Arant, D. H. Ewalt, C. E. Hawrey, R. S. Hurwitz, T. S. Parrott, H. M. Snyder, R. A. Weiss, S. H. Woolf, and V. Hasselblad, J. Urol. 157, 1846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, ACS Nano 4, 4559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, H.

Z. Wang, C. S. D. Lee, W. C. Waltzer, J. Liu, H. Xie, Z. Yuan, and Y. Pan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z.

Z. Wang, C. S. D. Lee, W. C. Waltzer, J. Liu, H. Xie, Z. Yuan, and Y. Pan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

Zhang, Q.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, ACS Nano 4, 4559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

ACS Nano

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, ACS Nano 4, 4559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Brit. J. Radiol.

C. Nicolau, L. Bunesch, L. Peri, R. Salvador, J. M. Corral, C. Mallofre, and C. Sebastia, Brit. J. Radiol. , doi:10.1259/bjr/43400531 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev.

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, Chem. Rev. 110, 2756 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

K. Homan, J. Shah, S. Gomez, H. Gensler, A. Karpiouk, L. Brannon-Peppas, and S. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. Todd, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Arkers, S. Achilefu, J. Margenthaler, M. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Song and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 060503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, C. S. D. Lee, W. C. Waltzer, J. Liu, H. Xie, Z. Yuan, and Y. Pan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Urol.

J. S. Elder, C. A. Peters, B. S. Arant, D. H. Ewalt, C. E. Hawrey, R. S. Hurwitz, T. S. Parrott, H. M. Snyder, R. A. Weiss, S. H. Woolf, and V. Hasselblad, J. Urol. 157, 1846 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Stratton, J. C. Pope, IV, M. C. Adams, J. W. Brock, III, and J. C. Thomas, J. Urol. 183, 2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys.

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, Med. Phys. 36, 4084 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Pediatr. Radiol.

R. L. McEwing, N. G. Anderson, S. Hellewell, and J. Mitchell, Pediatr. Radiol. 32, 853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Darge, Pediatr. Radiol. 38, 40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pediatrics

L. Chen, A. L. Hsiao, C. L. Moore, J. D. Dziura, and K. A. Santucci, Pediatrics 115, 1631 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, Radiology 255, 442 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph of the PAT system. (b) Photograph of an animal with bladder catheterization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nonionizing and noninvasive in vivo PA bladder (BD) imaging in a rat using MB injection. (a) Control PA image acquired at 667 nm in the form of MAP without MB injection. (b) PA MAP image acquired at 667 nm after MB injection. (c) PA MAP image acquired at 850 nm after MB injection. (d) PA B-scan image cut along the dotted line in (a). (e) PA B-scan image cut along the dotted line in (b). (f) Photograph with hair removed and catheterization before PA imaging. (g) Photograph with skin removed after PA imaging: BV, blood vessels; RT, rectum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo deeply penetrating PA imaging. (a) PA image acquired after MB injection and without additional chicken tissue. (b) PA image taken after MB injection with additional chicken tissue. (c) Depth-resolved PA B-scan image cut along the dotted line in (a). (d) Depth-resolved PA B-scan image cut along the dotted line in (b): BD, bladder; BV, blood vessels.

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