Abstract

We demonstrate a 2μm semiconductor disk laser emitting in a single longitudinal mode with a linewidth in the <10kHz range. A heterodyne detection scheme was used for precise linewidth measurements. In these experiments, the output beams of two identical laser cavities were superposed in order to generate a beat note signal on a photodiode. In the absence of active frequency stabilization, a linewidth of 45kHz was measured at an output power of 100mW. When using a frequency stabilization consisting of a feedback loop with a Fabry–Perot interferometer as wavelength reference, the linewidth could be further reduced to 9kHz.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guin, O. G. Okhotnikov, and M. D. Dawson, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1551 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, A. J. Kemp, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, in Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Physics and Technology, O.G.Okhotnikov, ed. (WILEY-VCH, 2010), pp. 73–117.
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Freed, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 404 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-M. Hopkins, N. Hempler, B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, Opt. Lett. 33, 201 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Z. L. Liau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. M. Stéphan, T. T. Tam, S. Blin, P. Besnard, and M. Têtu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043809 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guin, O. G. Okhotnikov, and M. D. Dawson, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hopkins, N. Hempler, B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, Opt. Lett. 33, 201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

G. M. Stéphan, T. T. Tam, S. Blin, P. Besnard, and M. Têtu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Z. L. Liau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

C. Freed, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 404 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Alnis, J.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Besnard, P.

G. M. Stéphan, T. T. Tam, S. Blin, P. Besnard, and M. Têtu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blin, S.

G. M. Stéphan, T. T. Tam, S. Blin, P. Besnard, and M. Têtu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D.

J.-M. Hopkins, N. Hempler, B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, Opt. Lett. 33, 201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Calvez, S.

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guin, O. G. Okhotnikov, and M. D. Dawson, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, A. J. Kemp, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, in Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Physics and Technology, O.G.Okhotnikov, ed. (WILEY-VCH, 2010), pp. 73–117.
[CrossRef]

Cerutti, L.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guin, O. G. Okhotnikov, and M. D. Dawson, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, A. J. Kemp, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, in Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Physics and Technology, O.G.Okhotnikov, ed. (WILEY-VCH, 2010), pp. 73–117.
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. I.

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Freed, C.

C. Freed, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 404 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Genty, F.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guin, M.

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guin, O. G. Okhotnikov, and M. D. Dawson, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hastie, J. E.

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guin, O. G. Okhotnikov, and M. D. Dawson, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, A. J. Kemp, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, in Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Physics and Technology, O.G.Okhotnikov, ed. (WILEY-VCH, 2010), pp. 73–117.
[CrossRef]

Hempler, N.

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Holm, M. A.

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, J.-M.

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, A. J.

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, A. J. Kemp, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, in Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Physics and Technology, O.G.Okhotnikov, ed. (WILEY-VCH, 2010), pp. 73–117.
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, K.

B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hopkins, N. Hempler, B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, Opt. Lett. 33, 201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolachevsky, N.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Laurand, N.

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, A. J. Kemp, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, in Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Physics and Technology, O.G.Okhotnikov, ed. (WILEY-VCH, 2010), pp. 73–117.
[CrossRef]

Liau, Z. L.

Z. L. Liau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Manz, C.

J.-M. Hopkins, N. Hempler, B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, Opt. Lett. 33, 201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matveev, A.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, A.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guin, O. G. Okhotnikov, and M. D. Dawson, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ouvrard, A.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rattunde, M.

B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hopkins, N. Hempler, B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, Opt. Lett. 33, 201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romanini, D.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rösener, B.

B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hopkins, N. Hempler, B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, Opt. Lett. 33, 201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, N.

J.-M. Hopkins, N. Hempler, B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, Opt. Lett. 33, 201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stéphan, G. M.

G. M. Stéphan, T. T. Tam, S. Blin, P. Besnard, and M. Têtu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tam, T. T.

G. M. Stéphan, T. T. Tam, S. Blin, P. Besnard, and M. Têtu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Têtu, M.

G. M. Stéphan, T. T. Tam, S. Blin, P. Besnard, and M. Têtu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Udem, Th.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

J.-M. Hopkins, N. Hempler, B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, Opt. Lett. 33, 201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. L. Liau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Freed, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 404 (1968).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Rösener, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (2)

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, M. Guin, O. G. Okhotnikov, and M. D. Dawson, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

G. M. Stéphan, T. T. Tam, S. Blin, P. Besnard, and M. Têtu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Calvez, J. E. Hastie, A. J. Kemp, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, in Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Physics and Technology, O.G.Okhotnikov, ed. (WILEY-VCH, 2010), pp. 73–117.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the actively stabilized semiconductor disk laser (upper left) together with a 3D drawing of the rugged and hermetically sealed laser cavity (lower right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic setup of the heterodyne beat note measurement employing two identical SDL modules.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-domain trace of the beat note signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Beat note frequency spectra of the free running laser modules (black points) and the active stabilized lasers (red points) together with the corresponding Voigt profile fit (solid lines). For easy comparison, the origin of the frequency axis was positioned at the beat frequency.

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