Abstract

Polarization-independent refractive index (RI) modulation can be achieved in blue phase (BP) liquid crystals (LCs) by applying an electric field parallel to the direction of light transmission. One of the problems limiting the achievable tuning range is the field-induced phase transition to the cholesteric phase, which is birefringent and chiral. Here we report the RI modulation capabilities of gold nanoparticle-doped BPs I and II, and we show that field-induced BP-cholesteric transition is suppressed in nanoparticle-doped BP II. Because the LC remains optically isotropic even at high applied voltages, a larger RI tuning range can be achieved.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. HongWen, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061123 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 96 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1477 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, Adv. Mater. 22, 622 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Zumer, Faraday Discuss. 144, 159 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

T. Iwata, K. Suzuki, N. Amaya, H. Higuchi, H. Masunaga, S. Sasaki, and H. Kikuchi, Macromolecules 42, 2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. HongWen, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. HongWen, Y.-H. Lin, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 191106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1991

K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543, 117 (1991).

H. S. Kitzerow, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 202, 51 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, G. P.

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Zumer, Faraday Discuss. 144, 159 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amaya, N.

T. Iwata, K. Suzuki, N. Amaya, H. Higuchi, H. Masunaga, S. Sasaki, and H. Kikuchi, Macromolecules 42, 2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, A.

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, Adv. Mater. 22, 622 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543, 117 (1991).

Ge, Z.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

T. Iwata, K. Suzuki, N. Amaya, H. Higuchi, H. Masunaga, S. Sasaki, and H. Kikuchi, Macromolecules 42, 2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

HongWen, R.

R. HongWen, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. HongWen, Y.-H. Lin, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 191106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, T.

T. Iwata, K. Suzuki, N. Amaya, H. Higuchi, H. Masunaga, S. Sasaki, and H. Kikuchi, Macromolecules 42, 2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawamoto, K.

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, Adv. Mater. 22, 622 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Iwata, K. Suzuki, N. Amaya, H. Higuchi, H. Masunaga, S. Sasaki, and H. Kikuchi, Macromolecules 42, 2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kitzerow, H. S.

H. S. Kitzerow, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 202, 51 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, H.

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, Adv. Mater. 22, 622 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuwabata, S.

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, Adv. Mater. 22, 622 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-H.

R. HongWen, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. HongWen, Y.-H. Lin, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 191106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Masunaga, H.

T. Iwata, K. Suzuki, N. Amaya, H. Higuchi, H. Masunaga, S. Sasaki, and H. Kikuchi, Macromolecules 42, 2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagamura, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, Adv. Mater. 22, 622 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543, 117 (1991).

Ozaki, R.

R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rao, L.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ravnik, M.

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Zumer, Faraday Discuss. 144, 159 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, S.

T. Iwata, K. Suzuki, N. Amaya, H. Higuchi, H. Masunaga, S. Sasaki, and H. Kikuchi, Macromolecules 42, 2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

T. Iwata, K. Suzuki, N. Amaya, H. Higuchi, H. Masunaga, S. Sasaki, and H. Kikuchi, Macromolecules 42, 2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tagashira, K.

K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543, 117 (1991).

Tanaka, Y.

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, T.

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, Adv. Mater. 22, 622 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wen, C.-H.

R. HongWen, Y.-H. Lin, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 191106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. HongWen, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. HongWen, Y.-H. Lin, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 191106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yeomans, J. M.

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Zumer, Faraday Discuss. 144, 159 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, Adv. Mater. 22, 622 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543, 117 (1991).

Yoshino, K.

R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zumer, S.

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Zumer, Faraday Discuss. 144, 159 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, and M. Ozaki, Adv. Mater. 22, 622 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. HongWen, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. HongWen, Y.-H. Lin, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 191106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, and S. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Faraday Discuss.

M. Ravnik, G. P. Alexander, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Zumer, Faraday Discuss. 144, 159 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

T. Iwata, K. Suzuki, N. Amaya, H. Higuchi, H. Masunaga, S. Sasaki, and H. Kikuchi, Macromolecules 42, 2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

K. Tagashira, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543, 117 (1991).

H. S. Kitzerow, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 202, 51 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization angle dependence of the transmission spectra of a Fabry–Perot etalon with AuNP-doped BP I.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of Fabry–Perot etalon with (a), (b) nondoped BPs I and II and (c), (d) AuNP- doped BPs I and II under an applied electric field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Applied field dependence of polarization-independent RI modulation obtained in each BP.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Kerr Constants Evaluated for Each BP Calculated from the Data Shown in Fig. 3

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