Abstract

The power noise of a cw Nd:YAG laser system was measured at radio frequencies using the optical ac coupling technique. An additional mode cleaner in the setup allowed a high optical ac coupling amplification of 62.3. For the first time, to our knowledge, a sensitivity of 1.1×1010Hz1/2 relative power noise was achieved corresponding to an equivalent detected photocurrent of 32A. High precision optics experiments can utilize this scheme to improve the sensitivity of their photodetectors.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. H.-A. Bachor and T. C. Ralph, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 33, 1509(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Kwee, “Laser characterization and stabilization for precision interferometry,” Ph.D. thesis (Universität Hannover, 2010).
  4. P. R. Saulson, Fundamentals of Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors (World Scientific, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Willke, Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 780 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 102, 515 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Hansch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986), Chap. 11.3.
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    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Freitag, A. Tünnermann, and H. Welling, Opt. Commun. 115, 511 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 102, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

B. Willke, Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 780 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 33, 1509(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

I. Freitag, A. Tünnermann, and H. Welling, Opt. Commun. 115, 511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, and K. Maischberger, Opt. Acta 28, 641 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Hansch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, H.-A.

H.-A. Bachor and T. C. Ralph, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Billing, H.

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, and K. Maischberger, Opt. Acta 28, 641 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bogan, C.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couillaud, B.

T. Hansch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 102, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 33, 1509(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frede, M.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, I.

I. Freitag, A. Tünnermann, and H. Welling, Opt. Commun. 115, 511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T.

T. Hansch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kluzik, R.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kracht, D.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwee, P.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 102, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 33, 1509(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kwee, “Laser characterization and stabilization for precision interferometry,” Ph.D. thesis (Universität Hannover, 2010).

Maischberger, K.

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, and K. Maischberger, Opt. Acta 28, 641 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Ebhardt, H.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumann, J.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poeld, J.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Puncken, O.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

H.-A. Bachor and T. C. Ralph, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, H.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rüdiger, A.

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, and K. Maischberger, Opt. Acta 28, 641 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Saulson, P. R.

P. R. Saulson, Fundamentals of Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors (World Scientific, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, R.

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, and K. Maischberger, Opt. Acta 28, 641 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnupp, L.

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, and K. Maischberger, Opt. Acta 28, 641 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986), Chap. 11.3.

Tünnermann, A.

I. Freitag, A. Tünnermann, and H. Welling, Opt. Commun. 115, 511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Veltkamp, C.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

I. Freitag, A. Tünnermann, and H. Welling, Opt. Commun. 115, 511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, P.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Willke, B.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 102, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Willke, Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 780 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 33, 1509(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkelmann, L.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, W.

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, and K. Maischberger, Opt. Acta 28, 641 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 102, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, Appl. Phys. B 102, 529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

B. Willke, Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 780 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, and K. Maischberger, Opt. Acta 28, 641 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

I. Freitag, A. Tünnermann, and H. Welling, Opt. Commun. 115, 511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Hansch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

H.-A. Bachor and T. C. Ralph, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, 2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986), Chap. 11.3.

P. Kwee, “Laser characterization and stabilization for precision interferometry,” Ph.D. thesis (Universität Hannover, 2010).

P. R. Saulson, Fundamentals of Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors (World Scientific, 1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: The beam of the laser system is coupled into the resonator ACC. The power noise was measured with the photodetector OACPD. The mode cleaner OMC is used to suppress parasitic higher TEM modes that would otherwise limit the sensitivity of the power detection. The components in the dashed box were used for calibration and were placed in the beam path only at low power ( 2 W ). Reference measurements were performed with photodetector TFPD. DPD, HCPD, photodetectors; SA, spectrum analyzer; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; λ / 2 , λ / 4 , wave plates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(b)–(d) Relative power noise of the laser system at different input powers to the experiment. The technical laser noise rolls off steeply toward higher frequencies. The measurements are limited by quantum noise (solid lines) at high frequencies at different levels. The input power, the average detected photo current, and the equivalent photo current are given in the legend. (a) For comparison, a measurement without optical ac coupling was performed demonstrating the high sensitivity gain of the optical ac coupling technique. The peak at 35.5 MHz corresponds to a modulation frequency used in the laser internal control.

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