Abstract

A Talbot–Lau interferometer using two-dimensional gratings and a conventional x-ray tube has been used to investigate a phase-contrast imaging technique that is sensitive to phase gradients in two orthogonal directions. Fourier analysis of Moiré fringe patterns was introduced to obtain differential phase images and scattering images from a single exposure. Two-dimensional structures of plastic phantoms and characteristic features of soft tissue were clearly obtained at 17.5keV. The phase-stepping technique was also examined to investigate the spatial resolution of different phase retrieval methods. In the presented setup we found that the choice of phase retrieval method made little difference in image blur, and a large effective source size was found to give a high intensity in the image plane.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2006 (2)

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, Y. Takeda, Y. Suzuki, and T. Hattori, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

V. N. Ingal and E. A. Beliaevskaya, J. Phys. D 28, 2314(1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

1965 (1)

U. Bonse and M. Hart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Beliaevskaya, E. A.

V. N. Ingal and E. A. Beliaevskaya, J. Phys. D 28, 2314(1995).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, E. E.

Bonse, U.

U. Bonse and M. Hart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bunk, O.

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cloetens, P.

David, C.

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, Opt. Express 13, 6296 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Den, T.

Diaz, A.

Donath, T.

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hamaishi, Y.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hart, M.

U. Bonse and M. Hart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, T.

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, Y. Takeda, Y. Suzuki, and T. Hattori, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ina, H.

Ingal, V. N.

V. N. Ingal and E. A. Beliaevskaya, J. Phys. D 28, 2314(1995).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, H.

Kawabata, K.

Kawamoto, S.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

Kohn, V.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kondoh, T.

Kopace, R.

Koyama, I.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, S.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E. N.

Momose, A.

W. Yashiro, Y. Terui, K. Kawabata, and A. Momose, Opt. Express 18, 16890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, Y. Takeda, Y. Suzuki, and T. Hattori, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, K.

Nakamura, T.

Ouchi, C.

Paganin, D. M.

D. M. Paganin, in Coherent X-Ray Optics (Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 397–400.

Pai, V.

Pfeiffer, F.

Rutishauser, S.

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sato, G.

Schelokov, I.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Setomoto, Y.

Snigirev, A.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stampanoni, M.

Stein, A. F.

Suzuki, Y.

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, Y. Takeda, Y. Suzuki, and T. Hattori, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, G. J.

Takai, K.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Takeda, Y.

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, Y. Takeda, Y. Suzuki, and T. Hattori, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Terui, Y.

Teshima, T.

Weitkamp, T.

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, Opt. Express 13, 6296 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, H. H.

Yamaguchi, K.

Yashiro, W.

W. Yashiro, Y. Terui, K. Kawabata, and A. Momose, Opt. Express 18, 16890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, Y. Takeda, Y. Suzuki, and T. Hattori, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zanette, I.

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, E.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

U. Bonse and M. Hart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. D (1)

V. N. Ingal and E. A. Beliaevskaya, J. Phys. D 28, 2314(1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, Y. Takeda, Y. Suzuki, and T. Hattori, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. M. Paganin, in Coherent X-Ray Optics (Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 397–400.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic setup of 2-D x-ray Talbot–Lau interferometer. The interferometer consists of a source grating (G0), a checkerboard designed phase grating (G1), and a lattice-shaped amplitude grating (G2). X rays generated by a conventional x-ray tube are recorded by a detector behind G2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Differential phase images along (a) the x direction and (b) the y-direction retrieved by Fourier analysis of a single 2-D Moiré fringe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of x-ray images of (a) cartilage on a chicken’s bone and (e) a tomato. The cartilage is shown clearly in (c) the differential phase image compared to (b) the absorption and (d) the scattering images. The inner structure of the tomato can be seen in (h) the scattering image, whereas (f) the absorption and (g) the differential phase images do not show any profiles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(top) Differential phase images and (bottom) section profiles of a nylon mesh sample of 200 μm in diameter, retrieved by (a) [(c)] Fourier analysis and by (b) [(d)] phase-stepping technique with effective source size of 0.3 mm ( 0.1 mm ) and an exposure time of 44 s ( 198 s ) in total.

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