Abstract

The evanescent coupling of light between a whispering-gallery-mode bottle microresonator and a subwavelength-diameter coupling fiber is actively stabilized by means of the Pound–Drever–Hall technique. We demonstrate the stabilization of a critically coupled resonator with a control bandwidth of 0.1Hz, yielding a residual transmission of (9±3)×103 for more than an hour. Simultaneously, the frequency of the resonator mode is actively stabilized.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003), and references therein.
    [PubMed]
  2. V. Ilchenko and A. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
  3. T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Science 321, 1172 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  4. M. Notomi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 096501 (2010).
  5. T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113 (2004).
  6. J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Lett. 22, 1129 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  7. S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  8. A. Matsko and V. Ilchenko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3 (2006).
  9. M. Sumetsky, Opt. Lett. 29, 8 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  10. Y. Louyer, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. A 72, 1 (2005).
  11. G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, Opt. Express 17, 11916 (2009).
  12. M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
    [PubMed]
  13. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97(1983).
  14. E. Wilcut Connolly, “Experiments with toroidal microresonators in cavity QED,” Ph.D. thesis (California Institute of Technology, 2009).
  15. E. D. Black, Am. J. Phys. 69, 79 (2001).
  16. H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics, Vol.  1 (Prentice-Hall, 1984).
  17. D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 99, 623 (2010).
  18. D. O’Shea, C. Junge, M. Poellinger, A. Vogler, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “All-optical switching and strong coupling using tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Appl. Phys. B , to be published.
  19. M. Pöllinger and A. Rauschenbeutel, Opt. Express 18, 17764 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  20. T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  21. A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  22. K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, Phys. Rev. B 70, 081306 (2004).

2010

M. Notomi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 096501 (2010).

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 99, 623 (2010).

M. Pöllinger and A. Rauschenbeutel, Opt. Express 18, 17764 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009

G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, Opt. Express 17, 11916 (2009).

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Science 321, 1172 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[PubMed]

A. Matsko and V. Ilchenko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3 (2006).

V. Ilchenko and A. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).

2005

Y. Louyer, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. A 72, 1 (2005).

2004

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, Phys. Rev. B 70, 081306 (2004).

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113 (2004).

M. Sumetsky, Opt. Lett. 29, 8 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[PubMed]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003), and references therein.
[PubMed]

2001

E. D. Black, Am. J. Phys. 69, 79 (2001).

1997

1983

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97(1983).

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[PubMed]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[PubMed]

Barclay, P.

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, Phys. Rev. B 70, 081306 (2004).

Birks, T. A.

Black, E. D.

E. D. Black, Am. J. Phys. 69, 79 (2001).

Borselli, M.

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, Phys. Rev. B 70, 081306 (2004).

Bowen, W. P.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[PubMed]

Cheung, G.

Dayan, B.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[PubMed]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97(1983).

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[PubMed]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97(1983).

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97(1983).

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics, Vol.  1 (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97(1983).

Ilchenko, V.

A. Matsko and V. Ilchenko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3 (2006).

V. Ilchenko and A. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).

Jacques, F.

Junge, C.

D. O’Shea, C. Junge, M. Poellinger, A. Vogler, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “All-optical switching and strong coupling using tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Appl. Phys. B , to be published.

Kimble, H. J.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[PubMed]

Kippenberg, T.

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Science 321, 1172 (2008).
[PubMed]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113 (2004).

Knight, J. C.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97(1983).

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[PubMed]

Louyer, Y.

Y. Louyer, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. A 72, 1 (2005).

Matsko, A.

A. Matsko and V. Ilchenko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3 (2006).

V. Ilchenko and A. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).

Meschede, D.

Y. Louyer, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. A 72, 1 (2005).

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97(1983).

Murugan, G. S.

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 096501 (2010).

O’Shea, D.

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 99, 623 (2010).

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[PubMed]

D. O’Shea, C. Junge, M. Poellinger, A. Vogler, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “All-optical switching and strong coupling using tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Appl. Phys. B , to be published.

Painter, O.

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, Phys. Rev. B 70, 081306 (2004).

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[PubMed]

Parkins, A. S.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[PubMed]

Poellinger, M.

D. O’Shea, C. Junge, M. Poellinger, A. Vogler, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “All-optical switching and strong coupling using tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Appl. Phys. B , to be published.

Pöllinger, M.

M. Pöllinger and A. Rauschenbeutel, Opt. Express 18, 17764 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[PubMed]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

M. Pöllinger and A. Rauschenbeutel, Opt. Express 18, 17764 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 99, 623 (2010).

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[PubMed]

Y. Louyer, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. A 72, 1 (2005).

D. O’Shea, C. Junge, M. Poellinger, A. Vogler, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “All-optical switching and strong coupling using tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Appl. Phys. B , to be published.

Rettenmaier, A.

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 99, 623 (2010).

Spillane, S.

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[PubMed]

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113 (2004).

Srinivasan, K.

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, Phys. Rev. B 70, 081306 (2004).

Sumetsky, M.

Vahala, K.

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Science 321, 1172 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[PubMed]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113 (2004).

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003), and references therein.
[PubMed]

Vogler, A.

D. O’Shea, C. Junge, M. Poellinger, A. Vogler, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “All-optical switching and strong coupling using tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Appl. Phys. B , to be published.

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97(1983).

Warken, F.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[PubMed]

Wilcut, E.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[PubMed]

Wilcut Connolly, E.

E. Wilcut Connolly, “Experiments with toroidal microresonators in cavity QED,” Ph.D. thesis (California Institute of Technology, 2009).

Wilkinson, J. S.

Zervas, M. N.

Am. J. Phys.

E. D. Black, Am. J. Phys. 69, 79 (2001).

Appl. Phys. B

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 99, 623 (2010).

D. O’Shea, C. Junge, M. Poellinger, A. Vogler, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “All-optical switching and strong coupling using tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Appl. Phys. B , to be published.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97(1983).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113 (2004).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Matsko and V. Ilchenko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3 (2006).

V. Ilchenko and A. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).

Nature

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003), and references therein.
[PubMed]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

Y. Louyer, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. A 72, 1 (2005).

Phys. Rev. B

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, Phys. Rev. B 70, 081306 (2004).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

M. Notomi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 096501 (2010).

Science

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Science 321, 1172 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[PubMed]

Other

E. Wilcut Connolly, “Experiments with toroidal microresonators in cavity QED,” Ph.D. thesis (California Institute of Technology, 2009).

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics, Vol.  1 (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup. The inset schematically shows the bottle resonator and the coupling fiber. AOM, acousto-optic modulator; EOM, electro-optic modulator. (b) PDH error signal, used for coupling stabilization, as a function of the laser–resonator detuning. The curves have been calculated for three different coupling strengths with Δ ν int = 3.2 MHz and ν mod , c = 42.8 MHz . Dashed curve: calculated PDH signal used for frequency stabilization with ν mod , f = 37.5 MHz .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Plot of the intensity transmission | t ( x , ν ) | 2 and of the off-resonant PDH signal as a function of the coupling gap according to Eqs. (1, 2). The zero on the x axis corresponds to the coupling gap at critical coupling. (b), (c) The experimental data show the transmission and the off-resonant PDH signal, respectively, around the critical coupling point. The solid line in (b) is a fit of | t ( x , ν ) | 2 according to Eq. (2), including an offset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Long-term measurement of the intensity transmission characterizing the performance of the coupling stabilization at critical coupling. The stabilization is switched off and on again at 90 min and 160 min , respectively. Inset: closeup of the recapturing process.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϵ ( ν ) Im { t ( ν ) t * ( ν + ν mod ) t * ( ν ) t ( ν ν mod ) } ,
t ( x , ν ) = Δ ν ( x ) Δ ν int 2 i ( ν ν 0 ) Δ ν ( x ) + Δ ν int + 2 i ( ν ν 0 ) .

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