Abstract

In this Letter, we report on dark field imaging of localized surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in plasmonic waveguiding bands formed by plasmonic coupled cavities. We image the light scattered from SPPs in the plasmonic cavities excited by a tunable light source. Tuning the excitation wavelength, we measure the localization and dispersion of the plasmonic cavity mode. Dark field imaging has been achieved in the Kretschmann configuration using a supercontinuum white-light laser equipped with an acoustooptic tunable filter. Polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection and dark field imaging measurements are correlated and found to be in agreement with finite-difference time-domain calculations.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  14. S. Balci, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Lett. 36, 2770(2011).
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  15. E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Gong and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 033113(2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601 (1997).
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  19. F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261 (1994).
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2011 (2)

S. Balci, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 031101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Balci, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Lett. 36, 2770(2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Balci, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131103 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. Hu, C. Novo, A. Funston, H. Wang, H. Staleva, S. Zou, P. Mulvaney, Y. Xia, and G. V. Hartland, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 1949 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 76, 113405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Gong and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 033113(2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. Sonnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[Crossref]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Aydinli, A.

S. Balci, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 031101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Balci, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Lett. 36, 2770(2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Balci, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131103 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balci, S.

S. Balci, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 031101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Balci, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Lett. 36, 2770(2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Balci, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bayindir, M.

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechinger, C.

Boardman, A. D.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bouhelier, A.

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 76, 113405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chan, V. Z. H.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Crozier, K. B.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dawson, P.

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Fornel, F.

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 76, 113405 (2007).
[Crossref]

des Francs, G. C.

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 76, 113405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eremin, Y.

Eremina, E.

Feldmann, J.

C. Sonnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249 (1998).
[Crossref]

Franzl, T.

C. Sonnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Funston, A.

M. Hu, C. Novo, A. Funston, H. Wang, H. Staleva, S. Zou, P. Mulvaney, Y. Xia, and G. V. Hartland, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 1949 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geier, S.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

Y. Gong and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 033113(2007).
[Crossref]

Goudonnet, J.-P.

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grandidier, J.

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 76, 113405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Greffet, J.-J.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261 (1994).
[Crossref]

Grosse, S.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hartland, G. V.

M. Hu, C. Novo, A. Funston, H. Wang, H. Staleva, S. Zou, P. Mulvaney, Y. Xia, and G. V. Hartland, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 1949 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hecker, N. E.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Helden, L.

Hertlein, C.

Hofer, F.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, M.

M. Hu, C. Novo, A. Funston, H. Wang, H. Staleva, S. Zou, P. Mulvaney, Y. Xia, and G. V. Hartland, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 1949 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klar, T.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kocabas, A.

S. Balci, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 031101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Balci, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131103 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kocabas, C.

S. Balci, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 031101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Balci, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Lett. 36, 2770(2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Balci, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kort, E. A.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kreibig, U.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lamprecht, B.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[Crossref]

Mait, J.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601 (1997).
[Crossref]

Maradudin, A. A.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261 (1994).
[Crossref]

Markey, L.

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 76, 113405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Massenot, S.

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 76, 113405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mazzoni, D. L.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moller, M.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mulvaney, P.

M. Hu, C. Novo, A. Funston, H. Wang, H. Staleva, S. Zou, P. Mulvaney, Y. Xia, and G. V. Hartland, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 1949 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sonnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novo, C.

M. Hu, C. Novo, A. Funston, H. Wang, H. Staleva, S. Zou, P. Mulvaney, Y. Xia, and G. V. Hartland, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 1949 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perner, M.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pincemin, F.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[Crossref]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer, 1986).

Riefler, N.

Rogers, M.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senlik, S. S.

A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sonnichsen, C.

C. Sonnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Spatz, J. P.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Spirkl, W.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249 (1998).
[Crossref]

Staleva, H.

M. Hu, C. Novo, A. Funston, H. Wang, H. Staleva, S. Zou, P. Mulvaney, Y. Xia, and G. V. Hartland, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 1949 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Temelkuran, B.

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Plessen, G.

C. Sonnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

Y. Gong and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 033113(2007).
[Crossref]

Wagner, D.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

M. Hu, C. Novo, A. Funston, H. Wang, H. Staleva, S. Zou, P. Mulvaney, Y. Xia, and G. V. Hartland, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 1949 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weeber, J.-C.

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 76, 113405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wilk, T.

C. Sonnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, O.

C. Sonnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wriedt, T.

Xia, Y.

M. Hu, C. Novo, A. Funston, H. Wang, H. Staleva, S. Zou, P. Mulvaney, Y. Xia, and G. V. Hartland, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 1949 (2008).
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Other (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of 9.0 μm long plasmonic coupled cavities. Three coupled cavities can be observed in the image. (b) AFM image of a single cavity. The cavity is located where the amplitude of the moiré surface approaches zero.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detailed schematic representation of the experimental apparatus used to image SPP waves on moiré surfaces. A supercontinuum white-light laser with attached AOTF has been used as an excitation laser. Cavity mode can be selectively illuminated to observe the spatial distribution of SPP waves in the cavity region. The scattered SPP waves from the cavity region are collected by an objective and are directly imaged using a digital CCD camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental dispersion curve of 15.0 μm long SPP cavities showing a bandgap and a cavity state. DFPM image of 15.0 μm long three SPP cavities imaged with the laser wavelengths of (b)  580 nm , (c)  615 nm , (d)  620 nm , and (e)  630 nm . The white colored bar indicates a 15.0 μm long distance. (h) Calculated intensity of the cavity mode from DFPM images. The intensity of the scattered light maximizes at 615 nm , which is the cavity mode in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental dispersion curves showing the bandgap and cavity state for 15.0 μm long cavities with grating groove depths of (a)  15 nm , (b)  30 nm , and (c)  50 nm . DFPM images of three cavities with grating groove depths of (d)  15 nm , (e)  30 nm , and (f)  50 nm . DFPM imaging is performed at an incidence angle of 42.5 ° , and the wavelength of the incident light is 615 nm . (g) Line profiles perpendicular to the long axis of the cavities indicate the intensity of the scattered SPP waves from the cavity region. FDTD calculated two- dimensional electric field distribution at the cavity wavelength for 15.0 μm long three plasmonic cavities with grating groove depth of (h)  15 nm , and (i)  50 nm . As the depth of the grating groove increases, localization of SPPs in the cavities increases as well. The white colored bars indicate a 15.0 μm long distance. The vertical length of the images in (h) and (i) is 2 μm long.

Equations (2)

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ω ( k ) = Ω [ 1 + κ cos ( k D ) ] ,
v g ( k ) = d ω ( k ) / d k = Ω D κ sin ( k D ) ,

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