Abstract

We demonstrate and describe how nanoporous liquid core waveguides can exclude scattering particles, making them an ideal integrated platform for analysis of turbid solutions. Milk with 0.5% fat showed an optical propagation loss of 0.05dB/mm at 633nm in nanoporous waveguides compared to the 10.6dB/mm loss in standard cuvette measurements. To examine the nanofiltering effect, waveguides were infiltrated with solutions containing Rhodamine B molecules (1nm) and 22nm red fluorescing polystyrene beads. With fluorescence spectroscopy we show that 22nm beads are excluded, while Rhodamine B molecules penetrate the waveguides. This is further confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, also revealing a homogenous distribution of Rhodamine in the waveguide volume.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011

A. L. Washburn and R. C. Bailey, Analyst 136, 227(2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Schulte, A. Grydgaard, M. R. Jakobsen, P. P. Szewczykowski, F. Guo, M. E. Vigild, R. H. Berg, and S. Ndoni, Polymer 52, 422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

V. Korampally, S. Mukherjee, M. Hossain, R. Manor, M. Yun, K. Gangopadhyay, L. Polo-Parada, and S. Gangopadhyay, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ndoni, L. Li, L. Schulte, P. P. Szewczykowski, T. W. Hansen, F. Guo, R. H. Berg, and M. E. Vigild, Macromolecules 42, 3877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

V. Jokinen and S. Franssila, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 5, 443 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Argov, D. G. Lemay, and J. B. German, Trends Food Sci. Technol. 19, 617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Huang, K.-L. Huang, S.-Q. Liu, A.-T. Wang, and C. Yan, Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 330, 55(2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Chang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-J. Chuang, H.-S. Khoo, and F.-G. Tseng, J. Nanotechnol. 19, 365301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Savariar, K. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Thayumanavan, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 112 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

W. Schröer, J. Köser, and F. Kuhnen, J. Mol. Liq. 134, 40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Yang and M. Zhao, J. Opt. A 9, 872 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

V. Tuchin, J.Phys. D 38, 2497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lichtman and J. A. Conchello, Nat. Methods 2, 910 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

T. A. Desai, D. J. Hansford, L. Leoni, M. Essenpreis, and M. Ferrari, Biosens. Bioelectron. 15, 453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. Qian and M. Wang, J. Phys. D 32, 2462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y.-H.

J.-E. Min, J.-H. Ryu, and Y.-H. Ahn, Proc. SPIE 7858, 78580F (2010).
[CrossRef]

Argov, N.

N. Argov, D. G. Lemay, and J. B. German, Trends Food Sci. Technol. 19, 617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. C.

A. L. Washburn and R. C. Bailey, Analyst 136, 227(2011).
[CrossRef]

Berg, R. H.

L. Schulte, A. Grydgaard, M. R. Jakobsen, P. P. Szewczykowski, F. Guo, M. E. Vigild, R. H. Berg, and S. Ndoni, Polymer 52, 422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ndoni, L. Li, L. Schulte, P. P. Szewczykowski, T. W. Hansen, F. Guo, R. H. Berg, and M. E. Vigild, Macromolecules 42, 3877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-J.

C.-J. Chang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-J. Chuang, H.-S. Khoo, and F.-G. Tseng, J. Nanotechnol. 19, 365301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, M. B.

N. Gopalakrishnan, K. S. Sagar, M. B. Christiansen, M. E. Vigild, S. Ndoni, and A. Kristensen, Opt. Express 18, 12903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Sagar, N. Gopalakrishnan, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kristensen, and S. Ndoni, “Photolithographic fabrication of hydrophilic solid-liquid core waveguides by thiolene chemistry,” J. Micromech. Microeng. (to be published).

Chuang, Y.-J.

C.-J. Chang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-J. Chuang, H.-S. Khoo, and F.-G. Tseng, J. Nanotechnol. 19, 365301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conchello, J. A.

J. W. Lichtman and J. A. Conchello, Nat. Methods 2, 910 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desai, T. A.

T. A. Desai, D. J. Hansford, L. Leoni, M. Essenpreis, and M. Ferrari, Biosens. Bioelectron. 15, 453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Essenpreis, M.

T. A. Desai, D. J. Hansford, L. Leoni, M. Essenpreis, and M. Ferrari, Biosens. Bioelectron. 15, 453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

T. A. Desai, D. J. Hansford, L. Leoni, M. Essenpreis, and M. Ferrari, Biosens. Bioelectron. 15, 453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franssila, S.

V. Jokinen and S. Franssila, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 5, 443 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, K.

V. Korampally, S. Mukherjee, M. Hossain, R. Manor, M. Yun, K. Gangopadhyay, L. Polo-Parada, and S. Gangopadhyay, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, S.

V. Korampally, S. Mukherjee, M. Hossain, R. Manor, M. Yun, K. Gangopadhyay, L. Polo-Parada, and S. Gangopadhyay, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

German, J. B.

N. Argov, D. G. Lemay, and J. B. German, Trends Food Sci. Technol. 19, 617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gopalakrishnan, N.

N. Gopalakrishnan, K. S. Sagar, M. B. Christiansen, M. E. Vigild, S. Ndoni, and A. Kristensen, Opt. Express 18, 12903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Sagar, N. Gopalakrishnan, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kristensen, and S. Ndoni, “Photolithographic fabrication of hydrophilic solid-liquid core waveguides by thiolene chemistry,” J. Micromech. Microeng. (to be published).

Grydgaard, A.

L. Schulte, A. Grydgaard, M. R. Jakobsen, P. P. Szewczykowski, F. Guo, M. E. Vigild, R. H. Berg, and S. Ndoni, Polymer 52, 422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, F.

L. Schulte, A. Grydgaard, M. R. Jakobsen, P. P. Szewczykowski, F. Guo, M. E. Vigild, R. H. Berg, and S. Ndoni, Polymer 52, 422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ndoni, L. Li, L. Schulte, P. P. Szewczykowski, T. W. Hansen, F. Guo, R. H. Berg, and M. E. Vigild, Macromolecules 42, 3877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. W.

S. Ndoni, L. Li, L. Schulte, P. P. Szewczykowski, T. W. Hansen, F. Guo, R. H. Berg, and M. E. Vigild, Macromolecules 42, 3877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hansford, D. J.

T. A. Desai, D. J. Hansford, L. Leoni, M. Essenpreis, and M. Ferrari, Biosens. Bioelectron. 15, 453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hossain, M.

V. Korampally, S. Mukherjee, M. Hossain, R. Manor, M. Yun, K. Gangopadhyay, L. Polo-Parada, and S. Gangopadhyay, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.-H.

J.-H. Huang, K.-L. Huang, S.-Q. Liu, A.-T. Wang, and C. Yan, Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 330, 55(2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.-L.

J.-H. Huang, K.-L. Huang, S.-Q. Liu, A.-T. Wang, and C. Yan, Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 330, 55(2008).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, M. R.

L. Schulte, A. Grydgaard, M. R. Jakobsen, P. P. Szewczykowski, F. Guo, M. E. Vigild, R. H. Berg, and S. Ndoni, Polymer 52, 422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jokinen, V.

V. Jokinen and S. Franssila, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 5, 443 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, H.-S.

C.-J. Chang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-J. Chuang, H.-S. Khoo, and F.-G. Tseng, J. Nanotechnol. 19, 365301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korampally, V.

V. Korampally, S. Mukherjee, M. Hossain, R. Manor, M. Yun, K. Gangopadhyay, L. Polo-Parada, and S. Gangopadhyay, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Köser, J.

W. Schröer, J. Köser, and F. Kuhnen, J. Mol. Liq. 134, 40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, K.

E. N. Savariar, K. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Thayumanavan, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 112 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristensen, A.

N. Gopalakrishnan, K. S. Sagar, M. B. Christiansen, M. E. Vigild, S. Ndoni, and A. Kristensen, Opt. Express 18, 12903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Sagar, N. Gopalakrishnan, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kristensen, and S. Ndoni, “Photolithographic fabrication of hydrophilic solid-liquid core waveguides by thiolene chemistry,” J. Micromech. Microeng. (to be published).

Kuhnen, F.

W. Schröer, J. Köser, and F. Kuhnen, J. Mol. Liq. 134, 40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lemay, D. G.

N. Argov, D. G. Lemay, and J. B. German, Trends Food Sci. Technol. 19, 617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leoni, L.

T. A. Desai, D. J. Hansford, L. Leoni, M. Essenpreis, and M. Ferrari, Biosens. Bioelectron. 15, 453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

S. Ndoni, L. Li, L. Schulte, P. P. Szewczykowski, T. W. Hansen, F. Guo, R. H. Berg, and M. E. Vigild, Macromolecules 42, 3877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lichtman, J. W.

J. W. Lichtman and J. A. Conchello, Nat. Methods 2, 910 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.-Q.

J.-H. Huang, K.-L. Huang, S.-Q. Liu, A.-T. Wang, and C. Yan, Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 330, 55(2008).
[CrossRef]

Manor, R.

V. Korampally, S. Mukherjee, M. Hossain, R. Manor, M. Yun, K. Gangopadhyay, L. Polo-Parada, and S. Gangopadhyay, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Min, J.-E.

J.-E. Min, J.-H. Ryu, and Y.-H. Ahn, Proc. SPIE 7858, 78580F (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, S.

V. Korampally, S. Mukherjee, M. Hossain, R. Manor, M. Yun, K. Gangopadhyay, L. Polo-Parada, and S. Gangopadhyay, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ndoni, S.

L. Schulte, A. Grydgaard, M. R. Jakobsen, P. P. Szewczykowski, F. Guo, M. E. Vigild, R. H. Berg, and S. Ndoni, Polymer 52, 422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gopalakrishnan, K. S. Sagar, M. B. Christiansen, M. E. Vigild, S. Ndoni, and A. Kristensen, Opt. Express 18, 12903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ndoni, L. Li, L. Schulte, P. P. Szewczykowski, T. W. Hansen, F. Guo, R. H. Berg, and M. E. Vigild, Macromolecules 42, 3877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Sagar, N. Gopalakrishnan, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kristensen, and S. Ndoni, “Photolithographic fabrication of hydrophilic solid-liquid core waveguides by thiolene chemistry,” J. Micromech. Microeng. (to be published).

Polo-Parada, L.

V. Korampally, S. Mukherjee, M. Hossain, R. Manor, M. Yun, K. Gangopadhyay, L. Polo-Parada, and S. Gangopadhyay, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, G.

G. Qian and M. Wang, J. Phys. D 32, 2462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, J.-H.

J.-E. Min, J.-H. Ryu, and Y.-H. Ahn, Proc. SPIE 7858, 78580F (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sagar, K. S.

N. Gopalakrishnan, K. S. Sagar, M. B. Christiansen, M. E. Vigild, S. Ndoni, and A. Kristensen, Opt. Express 18, 12903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Sagar, N. Gopalakrishnan, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kristensen, and S. Ndoni, “Photolithographic fabrication of hydrophilic solid-liquid core waveguides by thiolene chemistry,” J. Micromech. Microeng. (to be published).

Savariar, E. N.

E. N. Savariar, K. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Thayumanavan, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 112 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt, in Optical Guided Wave Chemical and Biosensors II, Vol.  8 of Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors, O.S.Wolfbeis, M.Zourob, and A.Lakhtakia, eds. (Springer, 2010), pp. 195–219.
[CrossRef]

Schröer, W.

W. Schröer, J. Köser, and F. Kuhnen, J. Mol. Liq. 134, 40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, L.

L. Schulte, A. Grydgaard, M. R. Jakobsen, P. P. Szewczykowski, F. Guo, M. E. Vigild, R. H. Berg, and S. Ndoni, Polymer 52, 422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ndoni, L. Li, L. Schulte, P. P. Szewczykowski, T. W. Hansen, F. Guo, R. H. Berg, and M. E. Vigild, Macromolecules 42, 3877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Szewczykowski, P. P.

L. Schulte, A. Grydgaard, M. R. Jakobsen, P. P. Szewczykowski, F. Guo, M. E. Vigild, R. H. Berg, and S. Ndoni, Polymer 52, 422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ndoni, L. Li, L. Schulte, P. P. Szewczykowski, T. W. Hansen, F. Guo, R. H. Berg, and M. E. Vigild, Macromolecules 42, 3877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thayumanavan, S.

E. N. Savariar, K. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Thayumanavan, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 112 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, F.-G.

C.-J. Chang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-J. Chuang, H.-S. Khoo, and F.-G. Tseng, J. Nanotechnol. 19, 365301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tuchin, V.

V. Tuchin, J.Phys. D 38, 2497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vigild, M. E.

L. Schulte, A. Grydgaard, M. R. Jakobsen, P. P. Szewczykowski, F. Guo, M. E. Vigild, R. H. Berg, and S. Ndoni, Polymer 52, 422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gopalakrishnan, K. S. Sagar, M. B. Christiansen, M. E. Vigild, S. Ndoni, and A. Kristensen, Opt. Express 18, 12903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ndoni, L. Li, L. Schulte, P. P. Szewczykowski, T. W. Hansen, F. Guo, R. H. Berg, and M. E. Vigild, Macromolecules 42, 3877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.-T.

J.-H. Huang, K.-L. Huang, S.-Q. Liu, A.-T. Wang, and C. Yan, Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 330, 55(2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

G. Qian and M. Wang, J. Phys. D 32, 2462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, A. L.

A. L. Washburn and R. C. Bailey, Analyst 136, 227(2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C.

J.-H. Huang, K.-L. Huang, S.-Q. Liu, A.-T. Wang, and C. Yan, Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 330, 55(2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.-S.

C.-J. Chang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-J. Chuang, H.-S. Khoo, and F.-G. Tseng, J. Nanotechnol. 19, 365301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Yang and M. Zhao, J. Opt. A 9, 872 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yun, M.

V. Korampally, S. Mukherjee, M. Hossain, R. Manor, M. Yun, K. Gangopadhyay, L. Polo-Parada, and S. Gangopadhyay, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, M.

Z. Y. Yang and M. Zhao, J. Opt. A 9, 872 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Analyst

A. L. Washburn and R. C. Bailey, Analyst 136, 227(2011).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

T. A. Desai, D. J. Hansford, L. Leoni, M. Essenpreis, and M. Ferrari, Biosens. Bioelectron. 15, 453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects

J.-H. Huang, K.-L. Huang, S.-Q. Liu, A.-T. Wang, and C. Yan, Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 330, 55(2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

V. Korampally, S. Mukherjee, M. Hossain, R. Manor, M. Yun, K. Gangopadhyay, L. Polo-Parada, and S. Gangopadhyay, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Liq.

W. Schröer, J. Köser, and F. Kuhnen, J. Mol. Liq. 134, 40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanotechnol.

C.-J. Chang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-J. Chuang, H.-S. Khoo, and F.-G. Tseng, J. Nanotechnol. 19, 365301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

Z. Y. Yang and M. Zhao, J. Opt. A 9, 872 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

G. Qian and M. Wang, J. Phys. D 32, 2462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.Phys. D

V. Tuchin, J.Phys. D 38, 2497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

S. Ndoni, L. Li, L. Schulte, P. P. Szewczykowski, T. W. Hansen, F. Guo, R. H. Berg, and M. E. Vigild, Macromolecules 42, 3877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Microfluid. Nanofluid.

V. Jokinen and S. Franssila, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 5, 443 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods

J. W. Lichtman and J. A. Conchello, Nat. Methods 2, 910 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

E. N. Savariar, K. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Thayumanavan, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 112 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Polymer

L. Schulte, A. Grydgaard, M. R. Jakobsen, P. P. Szewczykowski, F. Guo, M. E. Vigild, R. H. Berg, and S. Ndoni, Polymer 52, 422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J.-E. Min, J.-H. Ryu, and Y.-H. Ahn, Proc. SPIE 7858, 78580F (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trends Food Sci. Technol.

N. Argov, D. G. Lemay, and J. B. German, Trends Food Sci. Technol. 19, 617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. S. Sagar, N. Gopalakrishnan, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kristensen, and S. Ndoni, “Photolithographic fabrication of hydrophilic solid-liquid core waveguides by thiolene chemistry,” J. Micromech. Microeng. (to be published).

H. Schmidt, in Optical Guided Wave Chemical and Biosensors II, Vol.  8 of Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors, O.S.Wolfbeis, M.Zourob, and A.Lakhtakia, eds. (Springer, 2010), pp. 195–219.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measuring the propagation loss of red light ( 633 nm ) in milk with 0.5% fat; (a) in a cuvette and (b) in a NP LCW. Scattering from large fatty particles make it difficult to transmit light through milk in a cuvette while a filtered milk solution transmits and guides light efficiently in NP LCW.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Propagation loss measurements in water and milk infiltrated NP polymer waveguides. Inset: Nanoporosity ( 14 nm ) in NP polymers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence spectra of fluorophores used (a) observed in a cuvette for reference, (b) observed in NP LCWs immersed in solutions of Rhodamine B and 22 nm beads, and water.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence images (a) of Rhodamine B infiltrated device and (b) fluorescence signal profile horizontally across waveguide devices immersed in different solutions.

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