Abstract

A method for noninvasive viscoelasticity imaging of biological tissues using phase-resolved photoacoustic measurement is presented. We deduced the process of photoacoustic effect on the basis of thermal viscoelasticity theory, and established the relationship between the photoacoustic phase delay and the viscosity–elasticity ratio for soft solids. Agar phantoms with different densities and different absorption coefficients were used to verify the dependence of photoacoustic phase-resolved viscoelasticity measurements. Moreover, viscoelasticity imaging of tissues was obtained with a photoacoustic point scanning system. The photoacoustic phase-resolved method provides a basis for viscoelasticity imaging, which can potentially be used for detection of viscoelastic properties and lesions of biological tissues.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010

2008

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, A. Cruz-Orea, E. Ramón-Gallegos, R. Gutierrez Fuentes, and J. F. Sanchez Ramirez, Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics 153, 353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. H. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Q. Lao, D. W. Yang, L. M. Zeng, L. Zh. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Fatemi and J. F. Greenleaf, Science 280, 82 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

I. S. Kovach, Biophys. Chem. 59, 61 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, Science 269, 1854 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

V. C. Mow, A. Ratcliffe, and A. R. Poole, Biomaterials 13, 67 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnenkanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. M. Lerner, S. R. Huang, and K. J. Parker, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 16, 231 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

A. F. Mak, W. M. Lai, and V. C. Mow, J. Biomech. 20, 703 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez Ramirez, J. F.

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, A. Cruz-Orea, E. Ramón-Gallegos, R. Gutierrez Fuentes, and J. F. Sanchez Ramirez, Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics 153, 353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adie, S. G.

Baraes, H. A.

H. A. Baraes, J. F. Hutton, and K. Walters, An Introduction to Rheology (Elsevier, 1989).

Boppart, S. A.

Cespedes, I.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnenkanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. R.

S. H. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Q. Lao, D. W. Yang, L. M. Zeng, L. Zh. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cruz-Orea, A.

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, A. Cruz-Orea, E. Ramón-Gallegos, R. Gutierrez Fuentes, and J. F. Sanchez Ramirez, Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics 153, 353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ehman, R. L.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, Science 269, 1854 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fatemi, M.

M. Fatemi and J. F. Greenleaf, Science 280, 82 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferry, J. D.

J. D. Ferry, Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers (Wiley, 1980).

Greenleaf, J. F.

M. Fatemi and J. F. Greenleaf, Science 280, 82 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, Science 269, 1854 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutierrez Fuentes, R.

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, A. Cruz-Orea, E. Ramón-Gallegos, R. Gutierrez Fuentes, and J. F. Sanchez Ramirez, Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics 153, 353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. R.

R. M. Lerner, S. R. Huang, and K. J. Parker, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 16, 231 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutton, J. F.

H. A. Baraes, J. F. Hutton, and K. Walters, An Introduction to Rheology (Elsevier, 1989).

Jiménez Pérez, J. L.

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, A. Cruz-Orea, E. Ramón-Gallegos, R. Gutierrez Fuentes, and J. F. Sanchez Ramirez, Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics 153, 353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

John, R.

Kennedy, B. F.

Kovach, I. S.

I. S. Kovach, Biophys. Chem. 59, 61 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, W. M.

A. F. Mak, W. M. Lai, and V. C. Mow, J. Biomech. 20, 703 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lao, Y. Q.

S. H. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Q. Lao, D. W. Yang, L. M. Zeng, L. Zh. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lerner, R. M.

R. M. Lerner, S. R. Huang, and K. J. Parker, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 16, 231 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnenkanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Lomas, D. J.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, Science 269, 1854 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mak, A. F.

A. F. Mak, W. M. Lai, and V. C. Mow, J. Biomech. 20, 703 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

Mow, V. C.

V. C. Mow, A. Ratcliffe, and A. R. Poole, Biomaterials 13, 67 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Mak, W. M. Lai, and V. C. Mow, J. Biomech. 20, 703 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muthupillai, R.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, Science 269, 1854 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophir, J.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnenkanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Parker, K. J.

R. M. Lerner, S. R. Huang, and K. J. Parker, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 16, 231 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ponnenkanti, H.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnenkanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Poole, A. R.

V. C. Mow, A. Ratcliffe, and A. R. Poole, Biomaterials 13, 67 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramón-Gallegos, E.

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, A. Cruz-Orea, E. Ramón-Gallegos, R. Gutierrez Fuentes, and J. F. Sanchez Ramirez, Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics 153, 353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ratcliffe, A.

V. C. Mow, A. Ratcliffe, and A. R. Poole, Biomaterials 13, 67 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossman, P. J.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, Science 269, 1854 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

Song, L.

Takeuchi, Y.

Y. Takeuchi, Thermal Stress (Science, 1978).

Walters, K.

H. A. Baraes, J. F. Hutton, and K. Walters, An Introduction to Rheology (Elsevier, 1989).

Wang, L. V.

Xiang, L. Zh.

S. H. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Q. Lao, D. W. Yang, L. M. Zeng, L. Zh. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xing, D.

Y. Yuan, S. H. Yang, and D. Xing, Opt. Lett. 35, 2266 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ye, S. H. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Q. Lao, D. W. Yang, L. M. Zeng, L. Zh. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. W.

S. H. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Q. Lao, D. W. Yang, L. M. Zeng, L. Zh. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. H.

F. Ye, S. H. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yuan, S. H. Yang, and D. Xing, Opt. Lett. 35, 2266 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Q. Lao, D. W. Yang, L. M. Zeng, L. Zh. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yazdi, Y.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnenkanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ye, F.

F. Ye, S. H. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

Zeng, L. M.

S. H. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Q. Lao, D. W. Yang, L. M. Zeng, L. Zh. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. H. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Q. Lao, D. W. Yang, L. M. Zeng, L. Zh. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Ye, S. H. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials

V. C. Mow, A. Ratcliffe, and A. R. Poole, Biomaterials 13, 67 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. Chem.

I. S. Kovach, Biophys. Chem. 59, 61 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics

J. L. Jiménez Pérez, A. Cruz-Orea, E. Ramón-Gallegos, R. Gutierrez Fuentes, and J. F. Sanchez Ramirez, Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics 153, 353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomech.

A. F. Mak, W. M. Lai, and V. C. Mow, J. Biomech. 20, 703 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, Science 269, 1854 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fatemi and J. F. Greenleaf, Science 280, 82 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultrason. Imag.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnenkanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasound Med. Biol.

R. M. Lerner, S. R. Huang, and K. J. Parker, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 16, 231 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. D. Ferry, Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers (Wiley, 1980).

Y. Takeuchi, Thermal Stress (Science, 1978).

H. A. Baraes, J. F. Hutton, and K. Walters, An Introduction to Rheology (Elsevier, 1989).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of experimental setup for PA viscoelasticity imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Comparison between the phase delay of the PA wave and the internal friction angle measured by rheometer. The values of phase delay were averaged over 16 tests. (b) Phase delay obtained by PA measurement from agars with different absorption coefficients. (c) PA intensity of the agar phantoms with different proportions of ink. (d) Comparison between the phase delay of the PA wave and the internal friction angle measured by rheometer for biological tissues.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PA viscoelasticity imaging of sample. (b) Photograph of sample; the dashed frame is the PA scanning area.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ = 4 G r Φ r + ρ 2 Φ t 2 ,
σ = E α T 0 e i ω t / ( 1 ν ) ,
σ = E ε + η ε ˙ .
ε ( t ) = ε A e i ( ω t + δ ) ,
δ = arctan η ω E ,
δ m = δ t + δ s + δ .

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