Abstract

A device for performing vector transmission spectroscopy on aqueous and polar solvent specimens at terahertz frequencies is presented. The device enables the direct measurement of the complex dielectric function across the terahertz band using a Fourier transform IR spectrometer for lossy solutions. Using microfluidic sampling, specimen handling is straightforward and direct measurements on polar specimens are made possible. The method is scalable to longer or shorter wavelengths.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010

A. J. Baragwanath, G. P. Swift, D. Dai, A. J. Gallant, and J. M. Chamberlain, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 013102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, W. Sun, and Y. Zhang, Optik (Jena) 121, 1148 (2010).

C. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. Laufer, A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and V. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 4825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Saha, Y. Ma, J. P. Grant, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yomogida, Y. Sato, R. Nozaki, T. Mishina, and J. Nakahara, J. Mol. Struct. 981, 173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Heyden, J. Sun, S. Funkner, G. Mathias, H. Forbert, M. Havenith, and D. Marx, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tounonen, E. Gornov, J. A. Zeitler, J. Aaltonen, and K.-E. Peiponen, Opt. Lett. 35, 631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Stehr, C. M. Morris, C. Schmidt, and M. S. Sherwin, Opt. Lett. 35, 3799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

H. Yada, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, Chem. Phys. Lett. 473, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Adomavicius, J. Macutkevic, R. Suzanoviciene, A. Siusys, and A. Krotkus, Phys. Status Solidi C 6, 2849 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photon. 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Jespen, U. Moller, and H. Merbold, Opt. Express 15, 14717 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Leathy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

K.-E. Peiponen, V. Lucarini, E. M. Vartiainen, and J. J. Saarinen, Eur. Phys. J. B 41, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, J. D. Cruzan, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 9011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Silvestrelli, M. Bernasconi, and M. Parrinello, Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, C. Carter, R. J. Saykally, J. K. Gregory, and D. C. Clary, Nature 381, 501 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1956

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Aaltonen, J.

Abbott, D.

Adomavicius, R.

R. Adomavicius, J. Macutkevic, R. Suzanoviciene, A. Siusys, and A. Krotkus, Phys. Status Solidi C 6, 2849 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ahuja, A. T.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baragwanath, A. J.

A. J. Baragwanath, G. P. Swift, D. Dai, A. J. Gallant, and J. M. Chamberlain, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 013102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernasconi, M.

P. L. Silvestrelli, M. Bernasconi, and M. Parrinello, Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge University, 1999), Chap. 1.

Brown, M. G.

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, J. D. Cruzan, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 9011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, C. Carter, R. J. Saykally, J. K. Gregory, and D. C. Clary, Nature 381, 501 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C.

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, C. Carter, R. J. Saykally, J. K. Gregory, and D. C. Clary, Nature 381, 501 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, J. M.

A. J. Baragwanath, G. P. Swift, D. Dai, A. J. Gallant, and J. M. Chamberlain, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 013102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clary, D. C.

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, C. Carter, R. J. Saykally, J. K. Gregory, and D. C. Clary, Nature 381, 501 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cruzan, J. D.

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, J. D. Cruzan, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 9011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cumming, D. R. S.

S. C. Saha, Y. Ma, J. P. Grant, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

A. J. Baragwanath, G. P. Swift, D. Dai, A. J. Gallant, and J. M. Chamberlain, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 013102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

Fitch, M. J.

M. R. Leathy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forbert, H.

M. Heyden, J. Sun, S. Funkner, G. Mathias, H. Forbert, M. Havenith, and D. Marx, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funkner, S.

M. Heyden, J. Sun, S. Funkner, G. Mathias, H. Forbert, M. Havenith, and D. Marx, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallant, A. J.

A. J. Baragwanath, G. P. Swift, D. Dai, A. J. Gallant, and J. M. Chamberlain, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 013102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, A.

C. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. Laufer, A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and V. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 4825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gornov, E.

Grant, J. P.

S. C. Saha, Y. Ma, J. P. Grant, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, J. K.

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, C. Carter, R. J. Saykally, J. K. Gregory, and D. C. Clary, Nature 381, 501 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Havenith, M.

M. Heyden, J. Sun, S. Funkner, G. Mathias, H. Forbert, M. Havenith, and D. Marx, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayden, L. M.

M. R. Leathy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J.

C. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. Laufer, A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and V. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 4825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heyden, M.

M. Heyden, J. Sun, S. Funkner, G. Mathias, H. Forbert, M. Havenith, and D. Marx, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S. Y.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jespen, P.

Khalid, A.

S. C. Saha, Y. Ma, J. P. Grant, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krotkus, A.

R. Adomavicius, J. Macutkevic, R. Suzanoviciene, A. Siusys, and A. Krotkus, Phys. Status Solidi C 6, 2849 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laufer, J.

C. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. Laufer, A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and V. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 4825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leathy-Hoppa, M. R.

M. R. Leathy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, J. D. Cruzan, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 9011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, C. Carter, R. J. Saykally, J. K. Gregory, and D. C. Clary, Nature 381, 501 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lucarini, V.

K.-E. Peiponen, V. Lucarini, E. M. Vartiainen, and J. J. Saarinen, Eur. Phys. J. B 41, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

S. C. Saha, Y. Ma, J. P. Grant, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Macutkevic, J.

R. Adomavicius, J. Macutkevic, R. Suzanoviciene, A. Siusys, and A. Krotkus, Phys. Status Solidi C 6, 2849 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marx, D.

M. Heyden, J. Sun, S. Funkner, G. Mathias, H. Forbert, M. Havenith, and D. Marx, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathias, G.

M. Heyden, J. Sun, S. Funkner, G. Mathias, H. Forbert, M. Havenith, and D. Marx, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merbold, H.

Mishina, T.

Y. Yomogida, Y. Sato, R. Nozaki, T. Mishina, and J. Nakahara, J. Mol. Struct. 981, 173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moller, U.

Morris, C. M.

Nagai, M.

H. Yada, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, Chem. Phys. Lett. 473, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakahara, J.

Y. Yomogida, Y. Sato, R. Nozaki, T. Mishina, and J. Nakahara, J. Mol. Struct. 981, 173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nozaki, R.

Y. Yomogida, Y. Sato, R. Nozaki, T. Mishina, and J. Nakahara, J. Mol. Struct. 981, 173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Osiander, R.

M. R. Leathy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parrinello, M.

P. L. Silvestrelli, M. Bernasconi, and M. Parrinello, Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peiponen, K.-E.

H. Tounonen, E. Gornov, J. A. Zeitler, J. Aaltonen, and K.-E. Peiponen, Opt. Lett. 35, 631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-E. Peiponen, V. Lucarini, E. M. Vartiainen, and J. J. Saarinen, Eur. Phys. J. B 41, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

C. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. Laufer, A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and V. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 4825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reid, C.

C. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. Laufer, A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and V. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 4825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Saarinen, J. J.

K.-E. Peiponen, V. Lucarini, E. M. Vartiainen, and J. J. Saarinen, Eur. Phys. J. B 41, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saha, S. C.

S. C. Saha, Y. Ma, J. P. Grant, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

Y. Yomogida, Y. Sato, R. Nozaki, T. Mishina, and J. Nakahara, J. Mol. Struct. 981, 173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, J. D. Cruzan, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 9011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, C. Carter, R. J. Saykally, J. K. Gregory, and D. C. Clary, Nature 381, 501 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C.

Sherwin, M. S.

Silvestrelli, P. L.

P. L. Silvestrelli, M. Bernasconi, and M. Parrinello, Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Siusys, A.

R. Adomavicius, J. Macutkevic, R. Suzanoviciene, A. Siusys, and A. Krotkus, Phys. Status Solidi C 6, 2849 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stehr, D.

Sun, J.

M. Heyden, J. Sun, S. Funkner, G. Mathias, H. Forbert, M. Havenith, and D. Marx, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, W.

X. Wang, W. Sun, and Y. Zhang, Optik (Jena) 121, 1148 (2010).

Suzanoviciene, R.

R. Adomavicius, J. Macutkevic, R. Suzanoviciene, A. Siusys, and A. Krotkus, Phys. Status Solidi C 6, 2849 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swift, G. P.

A. J. Baragwanath, G. P. Swift, D. Dai, A. J. Gallant, and J. M. Chamberlain, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 013102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

H. Yada, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, Chem. Phys. Lett. 473, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photon. 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tounonen, H.

Vartiainen, E. M.

K.-E. Peiponen, V. Lucarini, E. M. Vartiainen, and J. J. Saarinen, Eur. Phys. J. B 41, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V.

C. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. Laufer, A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and V. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 4825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, W. Sun, and Y. Zhang, Optik (Jena) 121, 1148 (2010).

Wang, Y. X. J.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Withayachumnankul, W.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge University, 1999), Chap. 1.

Yada, H.

H. Yada, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, Chem. Phys. Lett. 473, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeung, D. K. W.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yomogida, Y.

Y. Yomogida, Y. Sato, R. Nozaki, T. Mishina, and J. Nakahara, J. Mol. Struct. 981, 173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeitler, J. A.

Zhang, Y.

X. Wang, W. Sun, and Y. Zhang, Optik (Jena) 121, 1148 (2010).

Zhang, Y.-T.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

M. R. Leathy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

M. R. Leathy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yada, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, Chem. Phys. Lett. 473, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Silvestrelli, M. Bernasconi, and M. Parrinello, Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. B

K.-E. Peiponen, V. Lucarini, E. M. Vartiainen, and J. J. Saarinen, Eur. Phys. J. B 41, 61 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. C. Saha, Y. Ma, J. P. Grant, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. J. Baragwanath, G. P. Swift, D. Dai, A. J. Gallant, and J. M. Chamberlain, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 013102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct.

Y. Yomogida, Y. Sato, R. Nozaki, T. Mishina, and J. Nakahara, J. Mol. Struct. 981, 173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, J. D. Cruzan, and R. J. Saykally, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 9011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photon. 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. Liu, M. G. Brown, C. Carter, R. J. Saykally, J. K. Gregory, and D. C. Clary, Nature 381, 501 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Optik (Jena)

X. Wang, W. Sun, and Y. Zhang, Optik (Jena) 121, 1148 (2010).

Phys. Med. Biol.

C. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. Laufer, A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and V. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 4825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C

R. Adomavicius, J. Macutkevic, R. Suzanoviciene, A. Siusys, and A. Krotkus, Phys. Status Solidi C 6, 2849 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

M. Heyden, J. Sun, S. Funkner, G. Mathias, H. Forbert, M. Havenith, and D. Marx, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge University, 1999), Chap. 1.

MATLAB R 2008b from the MathWorks.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross section perpendicular to the grating of the spectroscopy sampling device used to characterize liquids. (b) Photograph of the grating and reservoirs. (c) Scanning electron micrograph of the silicon grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured dielectric function of various concentration of methanol in water: (a) real part; (b) imaginary part.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured average dielectric function of water.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Measured Absorption Peaks Associated with HBB, HBS, VRT, and FM

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε TE = ε s f + ε e ( 1 f ) ,
ε TM = [ f ε s + 1 f ε e ] 1 .
η TE = ε 0 ε TE μ 0 ,
γ TE = ( j ω ε 0 ε TE ) ( j ω μ 0 ) ,
δ TE = j γ TE d .
M TE = [ cos δ TE ( j / η T E ) sin δ TE j η TE sin δ TE cos δ TE ] .
M total TE / TM = M sc M TE / TM M s = [ m 11 m 12 m m 22 ] .
τ TE / TM = 2 η 0 η 0 ( m 11 TE / TM + m 12 TE / TM η 0 ) + ( m 21 TE / TM + m 22 TE / TM η 0 ) ,
T TE / TM = τ TE / TM τ TE / TM *

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