Abstract

Distributed-feedback laser diodes emitting at 780nm have been evaluated, with respect to the aging of the injection current required for reaching the rubidium D2 resonance line. Results obtained for lasers operating in air and in vacuum for 9 months are reported. When operated at constant temperature, the laser current required for emission at the wavelength of the desired atomic resonance is found to decrease by 50 to 80μA per month. The impact of this result on the lifetime and long-term performances of laser-pumped rubidium atomic clocks is discussed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Vanier and C. Mandache, Appl. Phys. B 87, 565 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Affolderbach, F. Droz, and G. Mileti, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 429 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Schilt, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 95, 813(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. M. I. di Sopra, H.-P. Gauggel, M. Brunner, R. Hövel, M. Moser, and H. P. Zappe, Electron. Lett. 37, 832 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Vilokkinen, P. Savolainen, and P. Sipilä, Electron. Lett. 40, 1489 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Telcordia, GR-468, Issue 2, (September 2004).
  10. M. Fukuda, Reliability and Degradation of Semiconductor Lasers and LEDs (Artech House, 1991).
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  12. S. Tornow, T. Laurent, and L. Lierstuen, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 109–114.
  13. F. Gruet, D. Miletic, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, V. Vilokkinen, and P. Melanen, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 295–299.
  14. C. Cayron, V. Ligeret, P. Resnau, Y. Roberta, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, J. Nagle, and M. Krakowski, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 306–309.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J. C. Camparo, Contemp. Phys. 26, 443 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

V. Ligeret, D. Holleville, S. Perrin, S. Bansropun, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and N. Dimarcq, Electron. Lett. 44, 804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 95, 813(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier and C. Mandache, Appl. Phys. B 87, 565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Affolderbach, F. Droz, and G. Mileti, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Affolderbach and G. Mileti, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 073108(2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. Vilokkinen, P. Savolainen, and P. Sipilä, Electron. Lett. 40, 1489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Wenzel, A. Klehr, M. Braun, F. Bugge, G. Erbert, J. Fricke, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, Electron. Lett. 40, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

F. M. I. di Sopra, H.-P. Gauggel, M. Brunner, R. Hövel, M. Moser, and H. P. Zappe, Electron. Lett. 37, 832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. C. Camparo, Contemp. Phys. 26, 443 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Affolderbach, C.

C. Affolderbach, F. Droz, and G. Mileti, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Affolderbach and G. Mileti, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 073108(2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Gruet, D. Miletic, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, V. Vilokkinen, and P. Melanen, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 295–299.

Bansropun, S.

V. Ligeret, D. Holleville, S. Perrin, S. Bansropun, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and N. Dimarcq, Electron. Lett. 44, 804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Cayron, V. Ligeret, P. Resnau, Y. Roberta, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, J. Nagle, and M. Krakowski, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 306–309.

Bouyer, P.

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Braun, M.

H. Wenzel, A. Klehr, M. Braun, F. Bugge, G. Erbert, J. Fricke, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, Electron. Lett. 40, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, M.

F. M. I. di Sopra, H.-P. Gauggel, M. Brunner, R. Hövel, M. Moser, and H. P. Zappe, Electron. Lett. 37, 832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bugge, F.

H. Wenzel, A. Klehr, M. Braun, F. Bugge, G. Erbert, J. Fricke, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, Electron. Lett. 40, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

V. Ligeret, D. Holleville, S. Perrin, S. Bansropun, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and N. Dimarcq, Electron. Lett. 44, 804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Cayron, V. Ligeret, P. Resnau, Y. Roberta, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, J. Nagle, and M. Krakowski, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 306–309.

Camparo, J. C.

J. C. Camparo, Contemp. Phys. 26, 443 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cayron, C.

C. Cayron, V. Ligeret, P. Resnau, Y. Roberta, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, J. Nagle, and M. Krakowski, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 306–309.

di Sopra, F. M. I.

F. M. I. di Sopra, H.-P. Gauggel, M. Brunner, R. Hövel, M. Moser, and H. P. Zappe, Electron. Lett. 37, 832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dimarcq, N.

V. Ligeret, D. Holleville, S. Perrin, S. Bansropun, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and N. Dimarcq, Electron. Lett. 44, 804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Droz, F.

C. Affolderbach, F. Droz, and G. Mileti, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G.

H. Wenzel, A. Klehr, M. Braun, F. Bugge, G. Erbert, J. Fricke, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, Electron. Lett. 40, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, T.

M. Todd and T. Farrell, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Space Optics, A.Wilson, ed. (ESTEC, 2006), paper SP-621.

Fricke, J.

H. Wenzel, A. Klehr, M. Braun, F. Bugge, G. Erbert, J. Fricke, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, Electron. Lett. 40, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, M.

M. Fukuda, Reliability and Degradation of Semiconductor Lasers and LEDs (Artech House, 1991).

Gauggel, H.-P.

F. M. I. di Sopra, H.-P. Gauggel, M. Brunner, R. Hövel, M. Moser, and H. P. Zappe, Electron. Lett. 37, 832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gruet, F.

F. Gruet, D. Miletic, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, V. Vilokkinen, and P. Melanen, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 295–299.

Gustavson, T. L.

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holleville, D.

V. Ligeret, D. Holleville, S. Perrin, S. Bansropun, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and N. Dimarcq, Electron. Lett. 44, 804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hövel, R.

F. M. I. di Sopra, H.-P. Gauggel, M. Brunner, R. Hövel, M. Moser, and H. P. Zappe, Electron. Lett. 37, 832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kasevich, M. A.

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klehr, A.

H. Wenzel, A. Klehr, M. Braun, F. Bugge, G. Erbert, J. Fricke, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, Electron. Lett. 40, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, A.

H. Wenzel, A. Klehr, M. Braun, F. Bugge, G. Erbert, J. Fricke, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, Electron. Lett. 40, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A.

S. Schilt, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 95, 813(2008).
[CrossRef]

Krakowski, M.

V. Ligeret, D. Holleville, S. Perrin, S. Bansropun, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and N. Dimarcq, Electron. Lett. 44, 804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Cayron, V. Ligeret, P. Resnau, Y. Roberta, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, J. Nagle, and M. Krakowski, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 306–309.

Laurent, T.

S. Tornow, T. Laurent, and L. Lierstuen, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 109–114.

Lecomte, M.

V. Ligeret, D. Holleville, S. Perrin, S. Bansropun, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and N. Dimarcq, Electron. Lett. 44, 804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Cayron, V. Ligeret, P. Resnau, Y. Roberta, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, J. Nagle, and M. Krakowski, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 306–309.

Lierstuen, L.

S. Tornow, T. Laurent, and L. Lierstuen, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 109–114.

Ligeret, V.

V. Ligeret, D. Holleville, S. Perrin, S. Bansropun, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and N. Dimarcq, Electron. Lett. 44, 804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Cayron, V. Ligeret, P. Resnau, Y. Roberta, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, J. Nagle, and M. Krakowski, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 306–309.

Mandache, C.

J. Vanier and C. Mandache, Appl. Phys. B 87, 565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Melanen, P.

F. Gruet, D. Miletic, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, V. Vilokkinen, and P. Melanen, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 295–299.

Mileti, G.

C. Affolderbach, F. Droz, and G. Mileti, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Affolderbach and G. Mileti, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 073108(2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Gruet, D. Miletic, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, V. Vilokkinen, and P. Melanen, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 295–299.

Miletic, D.

F. Gruet, D. Miletic, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, V. Vilokkinen, and P. Melanen, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 295–299.

Moser, M.

F. M. I. di Sopra, H.-P. Gauggel, M. Brunner, R. Hövel, M. Moser, and H. P. Zappe, Electron. Lett. 37, 832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nagle, J.

C. Cayron, V. Ligeret, P. Resnau, Y. Roberta, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, J. Nagle, and M. Krakowski, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 306–309.

Parillaud, O.

V. Ligeret, D. Holleville, S. Perrin, S. Bansropun, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and N. Dimarcq, Electron. Lett. 44, 804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Cayron, V. Ligeret, P. Resnau, Y. Roberta, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, J. Nagle, and M. Krakowski, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 306–309.

Perrin, S.

V. Ligeret, D. Holleville, S. Perrin, S. Bansropun, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and N. Dimarcq, Electron. Lett. 44, 804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Resnau, P.

C. Cayron, V. Ligeret, P. Resnau, Y. Roberta, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, J. Nagle, and M. Krakowski, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 306–309.

Roberta, Y.

C. Cayron, V. Ligeret, P. Resnau, Y. Roberta, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, J. Nagle, and M. Krakowski, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 306–309.

Romalis, M. V.

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Savolainen, P.

V. Vilokkinen, P. Savolainen, and P. Sipilä, Electron. Lett. 40, 1489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schilt, S.

S. Schilt, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 95, 813(2008).
[CrossRef]

Sipilä, P.

V. Vilokkinen, P. Savolainen, and P. Sipilä, Electron. Lett. 40, 1489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.

S. Schilt, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 95, 813(2008).
[CrossRef]

Todd, M.

M. Todd and T. Farrell, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Space Optics, A.Wilson, ed. (ESTEC, 2006), paper SP-621.

Tornow, S.

S. Tornow, T. Laurent, and L. Lierstuen, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 109–114.

Tränkle, G.

H. Wenzel, A. Klehr, M. Braun, F. Bugge, G. Erbert, J. Fricke, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, Electron. Lett. 40, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier and C. Mandache, Appl. Phys. B 87, 565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vilokkinen, V.

V. Vilokkinen, P. Savolainen, and P. Sipilä, Electron. Lett. 40, 1489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Gruet, D. Miletic, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, V. Vilokkinen, and P. Melanen, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 295–299.

Wenzel, H.

H. Wenzel, A. Klehr, M. Braun, F. Bugge, G. Erbert, J. Fricke, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, Electron. Lett. 40, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weyers, M.

H. Wenzel, A. Klehr, M. Braun, F. Bugge, G. Erbert, J. Fricke, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, Electron. Lett. 40, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zappe, H. P.

F. M. I. di Sopra, H.-P. Gauggel, M. Brunner, R. Hövel, M. Moser, and H. P. Zappe, Electron. Lett. 37, 832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

S. Schilt, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 95, 813(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier and C. Mandache, Appl. Phys. B 87, 565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

J. C. Camparo, Contemp. Phys. 26, 443 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

H. Wenzel, A. Klehr, M. Braun, F. Bugge, G. Erbert, J. Fricke, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, Electron. Lett. 40, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ligeret, D. Holleville, S. Perrin, S. Bansropun, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and N. Dimarcq, Electron. Lett. 44, 804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. M. I. di Sopra, H.-P. Gauggel, M. Brunner, R. Hövel, M. Moser, and H. P. Zappe, Electron. Lett. 37, 832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Vilokkinen, P. Savolainen, and P. Sipilä, Electron. Lett. 40, 1489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

C. Affolderbach, F. Droz, and G. Mileti, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. Affolderbach and G. Mileti, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 073108(2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Telcordia, GR-468, Issue 2, (September 2004).

M. Fukuda, Reliability and Degradation of Semiconductor Lasers and LEDs (Artech House, 1991).

M. Todd and T. Farrell, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Space Optics, A.Wilson, ed. (ESTEC, 2006), paper SP-621.

S. Tornow, T. Laurent, and L. Lierstuen, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 109–114.

F. Gruet, D. Miletic, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, V. Vilokkinen, and P. Melanen, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 295–299.

C. Cayron, V. Ligeret, P. Resnau, Y. Roberta, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, J. Nagle, and M. Krakowski, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reliability of Optoelectronics for Space (2009), pp. 306–309.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematics of the experimental setup used for the long-term aging tests with two laser diodes (LD1 and LD2). Plain and dotted lines denote electrical connections and optical paths, respectively. (b) Typical enriched Rb 87 spectrum obtained by laser diode current sweep. The indicated 500 MHz Doppler-broadened resonance acts as frequency discriminator in the setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Current at resonance for two DFB laser diodes as measured with the aging system. (a) LD1, with integrated Peltier element, (b) LD2, without such element. The thick light-color solid lines represent the daily averaged measured values; their fits (cf. text) are given by the thin dark solid lines. The values corrected for temperature are given by the thick red solid lines. For LD1, the dashed line is the part of the fit depending only on the elapsed time (second-order polynomial).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resonance current for laser diode LD3 operated under vacuum. The solid line represents the measured values. The dashed line is a linear fit to the measured values.

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