Abstract

We report on lasing action from colonies of Escherichia coli bacteria that are genetically programmed to synthesize the green fluorescent protein (GFP). When embedded in a Fabry–Perot type cavity and excited by ns-pulses of blue light (465nm), the bacteria generate green laser emission (520nm). Broad illumination of pump light yields simultaneous lasing over a large area in bacterial colonies.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

M. C. Gather and S. H. Yun, Nat. Photonics 5, 406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Q. Song, S. Xiao, Z. Xu, J. Liu, X. Sun, V. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, O. Akkus, and Y. L. Kim, Opt. Lett. 35, 1425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, C.-S. Wu, S. Arnold, and X. Fan, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 16039 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Steen, Y. Kang, G. Bokinsky, Z. Hu, A. Schirmer, A. McClure, S. B. d. Cardayre, and J. D. Keasling, Nature 463, 559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (Springer–Verlag, New York, 2009).

S.Y.Lee, ed., Systems Biology and Biotechnology of Escherichia Coli (Springer, 2009).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289(2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. Y. Tsien, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 509 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

L. Wang, D. Liu, N. He, S. L. Jacques, and S. L. Thomsen, Appl. Opt. 35, 1775 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Tomley, in Methods in Molecular Biology, A.Harwood, ed. (Humana Press Inc, Totowa, NJ, 1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Siddique, L. Yang, Q. Z. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

D. V. Goeddel, D. G. Kleid, F. Bolivar, H. L. Heyneker, D. G. Yansura, R. Crea, T. Hirose, A. Kraszewski, K. Itakura, and A. D. Riggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akkus, O.

Alfano, R. R.

M. Siddique, L. Yang, Q. Z. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, C.-S. Wu, S. Arnold, and X. Fan, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 16039 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bokinsky, G.

E. J. Steen, Y. Kang, G. Bokinsky, Z. Hu, A. Schirmer, A. McClure, S. B. d. Cardayre, and J. D. Keasling, Nature 463, 559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolivar, F.

D. V. Goeddel, D. G. Kleid, F. Bolivar, H. L. Heyneker, D. G. Yansura, R. Crea, T. Hirose, A. Kraszewski, K. Itakura, and A. D. Riggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardayre, S. B. d.

E. J. Steen, Y. Kang, G. Bokinsky, Z. Hu, A. Schirmer, A. McClure, S. B. d. Cardayre, and J. D. Keasling, Nature 463, 559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crea, R.

D. V. Goeddel, D. G. Kleid, F. Bolivar, H. L. Heyneker, D. G. Yansura, R. Crea, T. Hirose, A. Kraszewski, K. Itakura, and A. D. Riggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V.

Fan, X.

Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, C.-S. Wu, S. Arnold, and X. Fan, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 16039 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather and S. H. Yun, Nat. Photonics 5, 406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goeddel, D. V.

D. V. Goeddel, D. G. Kleid, F. Bolivar, H. L. Heyneker, D. G. Yansura, R. Crea, T. Hirose, A. Kraszewski, K. Itakura, and A. D. Riggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, N.

Heyneker, H. L.

D. V. Goeddel, D. G. Kleid, F. Bolivar, H. L. Heyneker, D. G. Yansura, R. Crea, T. Hirose, A. Kraszewski, K. Itakura, and A. D. Riggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirose, T.

D. V. Goeddel, D. G. Kleid, F. Bolivar, H. L. Heyneker, D. G. Yansura, R. Crea, T. Hirose, A. Kraszewski, K. Itakura, and A. D. Riggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Z.

E. J. Steen, Y. Kang, G. Bokinsky, Z. Hu, A. Schirmer, A. McClure, S. B. d. Cardayre, and J. D. Keasling, Nature 463, 559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itakura, K.

D. V. Goeddel, D. G. Kleid, F. Bolivar, H. L. Heyneker, D. G. Yansura, R. Crea, T. Hirose, A. Kraszewski, K. Itakura, and A. D. Riggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Kang, Y.

E. J. Steen, Y. Kang, G. Bokinsky, Z. Hu, A. Schirmer, A. McClure, S. B. d. Cardayre, and J. D. Keasling, Nature 463, 559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keasling, J. D.

E. J. Steen, Y. Kang, G. Bokinsky, Z. Hu, A. Schirmer, A. McClure, S. B. d. Cardayre, and J. D. Keasling, Nature 463, 559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. L.

Kleid, D. G.

D. V. Goeddel, D. G. Kleid, F. Bolivar, H. L. Heyneker, D. G. Yansura, R. Crea, T. Hirose, A. Kraszewski, K. Itakura, and A. D. Riggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraszewski, A.

D. V. Goeddel, D. G. Kleid, F. Bolivar, H. L. Heyneker, D. G. Yansura, R. Crea, T. Hirose, A. Kraszewski, K. Itakura, and A. D. Riggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

Liu, J.

McClure, A.

E. J. Steen, Y. Kang, G. Bokinsky, Z. Hu, A. Schirmer, A. McClure, S. B. d. Cardayre, and J. D. Keasling, Nature 463, 559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289(2004).
[CrossRef]

Riggs, A. D.

D. V. Goeddel, D. G. Kleid, F. Bolivar, H. L. Heyneker, D. G. Yansura, R. Crea, T. Hirose, A. Kraszewski, K. Itakura, and A. D. Riggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirmer, A.

E. J. Steen, Y. Kang, G. Bokinsky, Z. Hu, A. Schirmer, A. McClure, S. B. d. Cardayre, and J. D. Keasling, Nature 463, 559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shopova, S. I.

Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, C.-S. Wu, S. Arnold, and X. Fan, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 16039 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siddique, M.

M. Siddique, L. Yang, Q. Z. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q.

Steen, E. J.

E. J. Steen, Y. Kang, G. Bokinsky, Z. Hu, A. Schirmer, A. McClure, S. B. d. Cardayre, and J. D. Keasling, Nature 463, 559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, C.-S. Wu, S. Arnold, and X. Fan, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 16039 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svelto, O.

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (Springer–Verlag, New York, 2009).

Thomsen, S. L.

Tomley, F. M.

F. M. Tomley, in Methods in Molecular Biology, A.Harwood, ed. (Humana Press Inc, Totowa, NJ, 1996).
[PubMed]

Tsien, R. Y.

R. Y. Tsien, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 509 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289(2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wang, Q. Z.

M. Siddique, L. Yang, Q. Z. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-S.

Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, C.-S. Wu, S. Arnold, and X. Fan, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 16039 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

Xu, Z.

Yang, L.

M. Siddique, L. Yang, Q. Z. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yansura, D. G.

D. V. Goeddel, D. G. Kleid, F. Bolivar, H. L. Heyneker, D. G. Yansura, R. Crea, T. Hirose, A. Kraszewski, K. Itakura, and A. D. Riggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

M. C. Gather and S. H. Yun, Nat. Photonics 5, 406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1)

R. Y. Tsien, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 509 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289(2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. C. Gather and S. H. Yun, Nat. Photonics 5, 406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

E. J. Steen, Y. Kang, G. Bokinsky, Z. Hu, A. Schirmer, A. McClure, S. B. d. Cardayre, and J. D. Keasling, Nature 463, 559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Siddique, L. Yang, Q. Z. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, C.-S. Wu, S. Arnold, and X. Fan, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 16039 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Goeddel, D. G. Kleid, F. Bolivar, H. L. Heyneker, D. G. Yansura, R. Crea, T. Hirose, A. Kraszewski, K. Itakura, and A. D. Riggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

F. M. Tomley, in Methods in Molecular Biology, A.Harwood, ed. (Humana Press Inc, Totowa, NJ, 1996).
[PubMed]

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (Springer–Verlag, New York, 2009).

S.Y.Lee, ed., Systems Biology and Biotechnology of Escherichia Coli (Springer, 2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a colony of GFP-expressing E. coli that forms the active gain medium of the bacteria laser. Scale bar 2 μm . (b) Schematic of the bacteria laser and the measurement setup. 465 nm pump light is reflected and focused into a microcavity filled with GFP-expressing bacteria (cavity length, d = 18 μm ). Laser emission from the structure is collected through the same lens, transmitted though the dichroic mirror, and analyzed by a camera or spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Input–output characteristics of the bacteria laser. Energy of laser output as a function of the energy per pump pulse. Solid line represents fit to data above lasing threshold ( E th = 160 nJ ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output spectrum of bacteria laser. Top, pumped close to the lasing threshold ( E p = 160 nJ ). Bottom, well above threshold ( E p = 650 nJ ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission pattern of bacteria laser pumped with an expanded excitation beam covering the entire field of view (pump beam diameter 150 μm ). (a) Close to the lasing threshold. (b) Pumped 3 × above threshold. The inset is a zoom-in of the marked area in the center. (c) Bright field image of same region on sample. Scale bars, 50 μm .

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