Abstract

We demonstrate an experimental result that shows the phase singularity of surface plasmon waves generated by the direct transform of optical vortices at normal incidence focused on a structureless metal surface. The near-field two-dimensional intensity distribution near the focal plane is experimentally examined by using near-field scanning optical microscopy and shows a good agreement with the finite-difference time-domain simulation result. The experimental realization demonstrates a potential of the proposed excitation scheme to be reconfigured locally with advantages over structures milled into optically thick metallic films for plasmonics applications involving plasmonic vortices.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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D. L. Andrews, M. Babiker, V. E. Lembessis, and S. Al-Awfi, Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. 4, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Yang, W. B. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. W. Zhan, Opt. Lett. 34, 3047 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Lembessis, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, Phys. Rev. A 79, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, and R. E. Burge, Opt. Express 16, 18451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, T. Mei, R. E. Burge, and G. G. Mu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Plasmonics 1, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, Nano. Lett. 6, 2104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

H. Raether, Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 111, 4 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Al-Awfi, S.

D. L. Andrews, M. Babiker, V. E. Lembessis, and S. Al-Awfi, Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. 4, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, D. L.

D. L. Andrews, M. Babiker, V. E. Lembessis, and S. Al-Awfi, Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. 4, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Lembessis, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, Phys. Rev. A 79, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Plasmonics 1, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Babiker, M.

D. L. Andrews, M. Babiker, V. E. Lembessis, and S. Al-Awfi, Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. 4, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Lembessis, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, Phys. Rev. A 79, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burge, R. E.

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, T. Mei, R. E. Burge, and G. G. Mu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, and R. E. Burge, Opt. Express 16, 18451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. B.

Cho, S. W.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Plasmonics 1, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Plasmonics 1, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gahagan, K. T.

Gao, H. W.

H. W. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, Nano. Lett. 6, 2104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckenberg, N. R.

Henzie, J.

H. W. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, Nano. Lett. 6, 2104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Plasmonics 1, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Plasmonics 1, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Plasmonics 1, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lembessis, V. E.

D. L. Andrews, M. Babiker, V. E. Lembessis, and S. Al-Awfi, Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. 4, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Lembessis, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, Phys. Rev. A 79, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lerman, G. M.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, and R. E. Burge, Opt. Express 16, 18451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, T. Mei, R. E. Burge, and G. G. Mu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDuff, R.

Mei, T.

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, T. Mei, R. E. Burge, and G. G. Mu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mu, G. G.

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, T. Mei, R. E. Burge, and G. G. Mu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, R. L.

Odom, T. W.

H. W. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, Nano. Lett. 6, 2104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 111, 4 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. P.

Steinberger, B.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Plasmonics 1, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Plasmonics 1, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, G. A.

Tan, P. S.

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, and R. E. Burge, Opt. Express 16, 18451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, T. Mei, R. E. Burge, and G. G. Mu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tetz, K. A.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, T. Mei, R. E. Burge, and G. G. Mu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, and R. E. Burge, Opt. Express 16, 18451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, A. G.

Yanai, A.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S. Y.

Yuan, X. C.

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, T. Mei, R. E. Burge, and G. G. Mu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, and R. E. Burge, Opt. Express 16, 18451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q. W.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Tan, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, Q. Wang, T. Mei, R. E. Burge, and G. G. Mu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (2)

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano. Lett. (1)

H. W. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, Nano. Lett. 6, 2104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

V. E. Lembessis, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, Phys. Rev. A 79, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. (1)

D. L. Andrews, M. Babiker, V. E. Lembessis, and S. Al-Awfi, Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. 4, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Plasmonics (1)

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Plasmonics 1, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. (1)

H. Raether, Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 111, 4 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical configuration of SPPs generated by OV beam, (b) computer-generated phase mask, and (c) corresponding OV beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FDTD simulation results of (a) normalized intensity, and (b) phase distribution of SPPs generated by OV beam. Singularity exists in the phase distribution at the center of the interference pattern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of experimental setup

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular distribution at the back focal plane of the objective lens after reflection captured by CCD (the white arrow indicates the direction of different polarization direction). The dark crescent shape corresponds to the SPR excitation. Insets: Intensity maps near to the focal region for an Ag/air interface measured by NSOM.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) NSOM image of the SPPs excitation by OV beam at 633 nm incident wavelength (the white arrow indicates the direction of the incident polarization), (b) comparison of experimental data and simulation data of intensity distribution.

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