Abstract

We present an optical frequency divider based on a 200MHz repetition rate Er:fiber mode-locked laser that, when locked to a stable optical frequency reference, generates microwave signals with absolute phase noise that is equal to or better than cryogenic microwave oscillators. At 1Hz offset from a 10GHz carrier, the phase noise is below 100dBc/Hz, limited by the optical reference. For offset frequencies >10kHz, the phase noise is shot noise limited at 145dBc/Hz. An analysis of the contribution of the residual noise from the Er:fiber optical frequency divider is also presented.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  15. J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. L. Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, Opt. Lett. 34, 3707 (2009).
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2011 (3)

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, Nat. Photon. 5, 158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Grop, P. Y. Bourgeois, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, E. Rubiola, and V. Giordano, Electron. Lett. 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

E. N. Ivanov and M. E. Tobar, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guena, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, Science 326, 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, M. Kirchner, T. Fortier, D. Braje, A. M. Weiner, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Express 17, 3331 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. L. Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, Opt. Lett. 34, 3707 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Doeleman, in Frequency Standards and Metrology: Proceedings of the 7th Symposium, L.Maleki, ed. (World Scientific, 2009), pp. 175–183.
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, Nat. Photon. 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

1998 (1)

G. Santarelli, C. Audoin, A. Makdissi, P. Laurent, G. J. Dick, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Abgrall, M.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guena, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Audoin, C.

G. Santarelli, C. Audoin, A. Makdissi, P. Laurent, G. J. Dick, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bize, S.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guena, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boudot, R.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Grop, P. Y. Bourgeois, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, E. Rubiola, and V. Giordano, Electron. Lett. 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. L. Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, Opt. Lett. 34, 3707 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourgeois, P. Y.

Braje, D.

Chen, J.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, Nat. Photon. 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guena, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Santarelli, C. Audoin, A. Makdissi, P. Laurent, G. J. Dick, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coq, Y. L.

Cox, J. A.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, Nat. Photon. 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

Datta, S.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dick, G. J.

G. Santarelli, C. Audoin, A. Makdissi, P. Laurent, G. J. Dick, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, M. Kirchner, T. Fortier, D. Braje, A. M. Weiner, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Express 17, 3331 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, Science 326, 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doeleman, S.

S. Doeleman, in Frequency Standards and Metrology: Proceedings of the 7th Symposium, L.Maleki, ed. (World Scientific, 2009), pp. 175–183.
[CrossRef]

English, E. M. L.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guena, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T.

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fox, R. W.

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, Nat. Photon. 5, 158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, V.

S. Grop, P. Y. Bourgeois, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, E. Rubiola, and V. Giordano, Electron. Lett. 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grop, S.

S. Grop, P. Y. Bourgeois, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, E. Rubiola, and V. Giordano, Electron. Lett. 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guena, J.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guena, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Hati, A.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heinecke, D.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, Science 326, 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

Holman, K. W.

Hudson, D. D.

Ivanov, E. N.

E. N. Ivanov and M. E. Tobar, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guena, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, Nat. Photon. 5, 158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

Jones, R. J.

Joshi, A.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jungner, P.

Kartner, F. X.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, Nat. Photon. 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kersale, Y.

S. Grop, P. Y. Bourgeois, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, E. Rubiola, and V. Giordano, Electron. Lett. 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

Kersalé, Y.

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, Nat. Photon. 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirchner, M.

Kirchner, M. S.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, P.

G. Santarelli, C. Audoin, A. Makdissi, P. Laurent, G. J. Dick, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Le Coq, Y.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guena, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, N.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, N. D.

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, Nat. Photon. 5, 158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guena, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. L. Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, Opt. Lett. 34, 3707 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ludlow, A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, A. D.

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, Nat. Photon. 5, 158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A. N.

Ma, L. S.

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, Nat. Photon. 5, 158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 1777 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makdissi, A.

G. Santarelli, C. Audoin, A. Makdissi, P. Laurent, G. J. Dick, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Millo, J.

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. L. Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, Opt. Lett. 34, 3707 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guena, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, C.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, Nat. Photon. 5, 158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskay, W. H.

Quinlan, F.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rubiola, E.

S. Grop, P. Y. Bourgeois, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, E. Rubiola, and V. Giordano, Electron. Lett. 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salik, E.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guena, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. L. Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, Opt. Lett. 34, 3707 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Santarelli, C. Audoin, A. Makdissi, P. Laurent, G. J. Dick, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, J. A.

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, Nat. Photon. 5, 158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photon. 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tobar, M. E.

E. N. Ivanov and M. E. Tobar, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guena, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Wilpers, G.

Xu, Z.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Yu, N.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guena, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211105(2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Grop, P. Y. Bourgeois, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, E. Rubiola, and V. Giordano, Electron. Lett. 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. (1)

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (2)

E. N. Ivanov and M. E. Tobar, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Santarelli, C. Audoin, A. Makdissi, P. Laurent, G. J. Dick, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (3)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Er:fiber-based OFD. EDF, erbium-doped fiber; PPLN, periodically-poled Li Nb O 3 ; Pol., polarizer; DBM, double-balanced mixer; opt. ref., optical reference; WDM + Iso. , wavelength division multiplexer/isolator hybrid; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; WP, wave plate; other symbols are defined in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-sideband phase noise on a 10 GHz carrier. (a) Phase noise comparison between Er:fiber-based OFD and Ti:Sapphire-based OFD. (b) Optical phase noise comparison between the 1068 and 578 nm optical references, scaled to a 10 GHz carrier, assuming perfect fidelity division. (c) Phase noise contribution from the Ti:sapphire-based OFD. (d) Phase noise contribution of the measurement system’s 10 MHz reference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase noise limitation imposed by the Er:fiber-based OFD. (a) Microwave phase noise on 10 GHz carrier from (a) in Fig. 2. (b) Phase noise from f 0 lock. (c) Phase noise from f b lock. (d) RIN converted to phase noise at the PD. The dotted horizontal line is the shot noise limit.

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