Abstract

The spectral tunability of semiconductor–metal multilayer structures can provide a channel for the conversion of light into useful mechanical actuation. Responses of suspended silicon, silicon nitride, chromium, gold, and aluminum microstructures are shown to be utilized as a detector for visible and IR spectroscopy. Both dispersive and interferometric approaches are investigated to delineate the potential use of the structures in spatially resolved spectroscopy and spectrally resolved microscopy. The thermoplasmonic, spectral absorption, interference effects, and the associated energy deposition that contributes to the mechanical response are discussed to describe the potential of optomechanical detection in future integrated spectrometers.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977(2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  22. M. Klanjsek Gunde and M. Macek, Phys. Status Solidi A 183, 439 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

T. Rocheleau, T. Ndukum, C. Macklin, J. B. Hertzberg, A. A. Clerk, and K. C. Schwab, Nature 463, 72 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Nunnenkamp, K. Børkje, J. G. E. Harris, and S. M. Girvin, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021806 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. M. Todorovic, B. Cretin, Y. Q. Song, and P. Vairac, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023516 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

F. Marquardt and S. Girvin, Physics 2, 40 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, N. F. van Hulst, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 836(2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Noh, R. Anderson, S. Kim, J. Cardenas, and G. P. Nordin, Opt. Express 16, 12114 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

B. Ohler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 063701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Passian, A. Lereu, D. Yi, S. Barhen, and T. Thundat, Phys. Rev. B 75, 233403 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, Science 312, 1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wig, E. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. Aufmuth and K. Danzmann, New J. Phys. 7, 202 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

M. Klanjsek Gunde and M. Macek, Phys. Status Solidi A 183, 439 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith and N. Kroll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2933 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, R.

Arakawa, E.

A. Wig, E. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aufmuth, P.

P. Aufmuth and K. Danzmann, New J. Phys. 7, 202 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barhen, S.

A. Passian, A. Lereu, D. Yi, S. Barhen, and T. Thundat, Phys. Rev. B 75, 233403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Børkje, K.

A. Nunnenkamp, K. Børkje, J. G. E. Harris, and S. M. Girvin, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Camacho, R. M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardenas, J.

Chan, J.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clerk, A. A.

T. Rocheleau, T. Ndukum, C. Macklin, J. B. Hertzberg, A. A. Clerk, and K. C. Schwab, Nature 463, 72 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cretin, B.

D. M. Todorovic, B. Cretin, Y. Q. Song, and P. Vairac, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023516 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danzmann, K.

P. Aufmuth and K. Danzmann, New J. Phys. 7, 202 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dionne, J. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eichenfield, M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farahi, R. H.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, N. F. van Hulst, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 836(2008).
[Crossref]

Ferrell, T.

A. Wig, E. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ferrell, T. L.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, N. F. van Hulst, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 836(2008).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, H.

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerken, M.

Girvin, S.

F. Marquardt and S. Girvin, Physics 2, 40 (2009).
[Crossref]

Girvin, S. M.

A. Nunnenkamp, K. Børkje, J. G. E. Harris, and S. M. Girvin, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gunde, M. Klanjsek

M. Klanjsek Gunde and M. Macek, Phys. Status Solidi A 183, 439 (2001).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. G. E.

A. Nunnenkamp, K. Børkje, J. G. E. Harris, and S. M. Girvin, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hertzberg, J. B.

T. Rocheleau, T. Ndukum, C. Macklin, J. B. Hertzberg, A. A. Clerk, and K. C. Schwab, Nature 463, 72 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kadri, S.

Kim, S.

Kroll, N.

D. R. Smith and N. Kroll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2933 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, Science 312, 1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lereu, A.

A. Passian, A. Lereu, D. Yi, S. Barhen, and T. Thundat, Phys. Rev. B 75, 233403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lereu, A. L.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, N. F. van Hulst, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 836(2008).
[Crossref]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macek, M.

M. Klanjsek Gunde and M. Macek, Phys. Status Solidi A 183, 439 (2001).
[Crossref]

Macklin, C.

T. Rocheleau, T. Ndukum, C. Macklin, J. B. Hertzberg, A. A. Clerk, and K. C. Schwab, Nature 463, 72 (2010).
[Crossref]

Marquardt, F.

F. Marquardt and S. Girvin, Physics 2, 40 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ndukum, T.

T. Rocheleau, T. Ndukum, C. Macklin, J. B. Hertzberg, A. A. Clerk, and K. C. Schwab, Nature 463, 72 (2010).
[Crossref]

Noh, J. W.

Nordin, G. P.

Nunnenkamp, A.

A. Nunnenkamp, K. Børkje, J. G. E. Harris, and S. M. Girvin, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ohler, B.

B. Ohler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 063701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Passian, A.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, N. F. van Hulst, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 836(2008).
[Crossref]

A. Passian, A. Lereu, D. Yi, S. Barhen, and T. Thundat, Phys. Rev. B 75, 233403 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Wig, E. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rocheleau, T.

T. Rocheleau, T. Ndukum, C. Macklin, J. B. Hertzberg, A. A. Clerk, and K. C. Schwab, Nature 463, 72 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, K.

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwab, K. C.

T. Rocheleau, T. Ndukum, C. Macklin, J. B. Hertzberg, A. A. Clerk, and K. C. Schwab, Nature 463, 72 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith and N. Kroll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2933 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y. Q.

D. M. Todorovic, B. Cretin, Y. Q. Song, and P. Vairac, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023516 (2010).
[Crossref]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thundat, T.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, N. F. van Hulst, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 836(2008).
[Crossref]

A. Passian, A. Lereu, D. Yi, S. Barhen, and T. Thundat, Phys. Rev. B 75, 233403 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Wig, E. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[Crossref]

Todorovic, D. M.

D. M. Todorovic, B. Cretin, Y. Q. Song, and P. Vairac, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023516 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vairac, P.

D. M. Todorovic, B. Cretin, Y. Q. Song, and P. Vairac, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023516 (2010).
[Crossref]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, N. F. van Hulst, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 836(2008).
[Crossref]

Wig, A.

A. Wig, E. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yi, D.

A. Passian, A. Lereu, D. Yi, S. Barhen, and T. Thundat, Phys. Rev. B 75, 233403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. M. Todorovic, B. Cretin, Y. Q. Song, and P. Vairac, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023516 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, N. F. van Hulst, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 836(2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Rocheleau, T. Ndukum, C. Macklin, J. B. Hertzberg, A. A. Clerk, and K. C. Schwab, Nature 463, 72 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Aufmuth and K. Danzmann, New J. Phys. 7, 202 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Nunnenkamp, K. Børkje, J. G. E. Harris, and S. M. Girvin, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Passian, A. Lereu, D. Yi, S. Barhen, and T. Thundat, Phys. Rev. B 75, 233403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. R. Smith and N. Kroll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2933 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

M. Klanjsek Gunde and M. Macek, Phys. Status Solidi A 183, 439 (2001).
[Crossref]

Physics (1)

F. Marquardt and S. Girvin, Physics 2, 40 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. Ohler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 063701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (6)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, Science 312, 1777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

A. Wig, E. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optomechanical spectrometer based on an array of microstructures C i , i = 1 , 2 , . The pulses indicate the interferometer operation (left) and the quantum cascade laser (middle). The right laser and the PSD detect the state of the cantilevers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optomechanics of (a)–(c)  Au Si 3 N 4 and (d)–(f) Al–Si AFM probes. Spectra for incidence at the semiconductor layer in (a), (b), (d), and (e) and the insets of (c), (f), with the data in the mid-IR in (a) and (d), and the theoretical s and p polarization (incidence 30 ° ) absorption in (b) and (e). Insets (a) and (d) show the 1.5 25 μm spectra, while the case of 0 ° is shown in inset (e). The inset in (b) shows the properties of Si 3 N 4 [22]. In (c) and (f), the responses in the visible and near-IR are presented when the metal layer is exposed, while the insets show the semiconductor exposure. Arrows indicate the He–Ne line used in the oscillation detection of the probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Amplitude and (b) phase of the QCL beam profile measured with an Al–Si microcantilever ( k = 0.03 N / m ). Probe’s response to (c)  f p and (d)  W p of the QCL output obtained by lock-in measurement. The two data sets and their numerical fits in (c) show the noise excited resonances of the probe. O, in (d), is the operational point used in (c) with f p = 100 kHz .

Equations (1)

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g k ( t ) = 0 1 Φ k ( u ) d u 0 1 w ( u , τ ) e η ( t τ ) sin ω k ( t τ ) d τ ,

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