Abstract

We present an iterative method of eliminating pixelation artifacts from an endoscopic image acquired from a coherent fiber bundle imager. Our proposed approach for decoupling the honeycomb effect from the obtained sample image was formulated by using the prior probability for an approximate Bayesian framework in which the ideal complete image can be estimated by maximizing the posterior probability from the observed image. The maximization of the posterior probability from the original mask image (the mirrored fiber bundle imager structure) and the observed image (the sample image of the United States Air Force chart) has been performed by learning the image priors in the space of Markov random fields. By iteratively estimating the probability distribution, we reduced the noise effects from the mask image and recovered the ideal shape of the image. This method was efficient for automatically learning the sliding patch from the combination of projected kernels. The mask and observed images were obtained from en face images of the Fourier domain optical coherence tomography based on a common path interferometry scheme.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (2)

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Ford and R. P. Tatam, Appl. Opt. 50, 627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, Electron. Lett. 45, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Roth and M. Black, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 82, 205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

C. J. Engelbrecht, R. S. Johnston, E. J. Seibel, and F. Helmchen, Opt. Express 16, 5556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, K. L. Reichenbach, and C. Xu, Opt. Express 16, 21598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srivastava, J. J. Rodríguez, A. R. Rouse, M. A. Brewer, and A. F. Gmitro, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-A. Spitz, R. Yasukuni, N. Sandeau, M. Takano, J.-J. Vachon, R. Meallet-Renault, and R. B. Pansu, J. Microsc. 229, 104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pyhtila, J. D. Boyer, K. J. Chalut, and A. Wax, Opt. Lett. 31, 772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, B. E. Bouma, N. Iftimia, R. Yelin, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Express 14, 8675 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kervrann and J. Boulanger, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV’06), Part IV (Springer-Verlag, 2006), pp. 555–567.

2005 (4)

T. Xie, D. Mukai, S. Guo, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1803 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Suter, J. Reinhardt, P. Montague, P. Taft, J. Lee, J. Zabner, and G. McLennan, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034013(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Buades, B. Coll, and J.-M. Morel, Multiscale Model. Simul. 4, 490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

S. Alaruria, T. Bonsetta, D. Smitha, F. Macria, A. Brewingtona, and D. Wildman, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 277(2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. M. Dickens, M. P. Houlne, S. Mitra, and D. J. Bornhop, Opt. Eng. 38, 1836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alaruria, S.

S. Alaruria, T. Bonsetta, D. Smitha, F. Macria, A. Brewingtona, and D. Wildman, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 277(2001).
[CrossRef]

Barretto, R. P. J.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Black, M.

S. Roth and M. Black, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 82, 205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonsetta, T.

S. Alaruria, T. Bonsetta, D. Smitha, F. Macria, A. Brewingtona, and D. Wildman, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 277(2001).
[CrossRef]

Bornhop, D. J.

M. M. Dickens, M. P. Houlne, S. Mitra, and D. J. Bornhop, Opt. Eng. 38, 1836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boulanger, J.

C. Kervrann and J. Boulanger, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV’06), Part IV (Springer-Verlag, 2006), pp. 555–567.

Bouma, B. E.

Boyer, J. D.

Brenner, M.

Brewer, M. A.

S. Srivastava, J. J. Rodríguez, A. R. Rouse, M. A. Brewer, and A. F. Gmitro, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewingtona, A.

S. Alaruria, T. Bonsetta, D. Smitha, F. Macria, A. Brewingtona, and D. Wildman, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 277(2001).
[CrossRef]

Buades, A.

A. Buades, B. Coll, and J.-M. Morel, Multiscale Model. Simul. 4, 490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burns, L. D.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chalut, K. J.

Chen, X.

Chen, Z.

Cheung, E. L. M.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cocker, E. D.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coll, B.

A. Buades, B. Coll, and J.-M. Morel, Multiscale Model. Simul. 4, 490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dickens, M. M.

M. M. Dickens, M. P. Houlne, S. Mitra, and D. J. Bornhop, Opt. Eng. 38, 1836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elter, M.

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelbrecht, C. J.

Flusberg, B. A.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, H. D.

Gerhäuser, H.

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmitro, A. F.

S. Srivastava, J. J. Rodríguez, A. R. Rouse, M. A. Brewer, and A. F. Gmitro, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Göbel, W.

Guo, S.

Han, J.-H.

Helmchen, F.

Houlne, M. P.

M. M. Dickens, M. P. Houlne, S. Mitra, and D. J. Bornhop, Opt. Eng. 38, 1836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Johnston, R. S.

Jung, J. C.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. U.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, J. U. Kang, and C. G. Song, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Lee, and J. U. Kang, Opt. Express 18, 7427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, Electron. Lett. 45, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. N.

Kervrann, C.

C. Kervrann and J. Boulanger, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV’06), Part IV (Springer-Verlag, 2006), pp. 555–567.

Ko, T. H.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

J.-H. Han, J. Lee, and J. U. Kang, Opt. Express 18, 7427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Suter, J. Reinhardt, P. Montague, P. Taft, J. Lee, J. Zabner, and G. McLennan, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034013(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, J. U. Kang, and C. G. Song, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, Electron. Lett. 45, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Macria, F.

S. Alaruria, T. Bonsetta, D. Smitha, F. Macria, A. Brewingtona, and D. Wildman, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 277(2001).
[CrossRef]

McLennan, G.

M. Suter, J. Reinhardt, P. Montague, P. Taft, J. Lee, J. Zabner, and G. McLennan, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034013(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meallet-Renault, R.

J.-A. Spitz, R. Yasukuni, N. Sandeau, M. Takano, J.-J. Vachon, R. Meallet-Renault, and R. B. Pansu, J. Microsc. 229, 104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitra, S.

M. M. Dickens, M. P. Houlne, S. Mitra, and D. J. Bornhop, Opt. Eng. 38, 1836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Montague, P.

M. Suter, J. Reinhardt, P. Montague, P. Taft, J. Lee, J. Zabner, and G. McLennan, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034013(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morel, J.-M.

A. Buades, B. Coll, and J.-M. Morel, Multiscale Model. Simul. 4, 490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, D.

Mukamel, E. A.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Münzenmayer, C.

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nimmerjahn, A.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Göbel, J. N. Kerr, A. Nimmerjahn, and F. Helmchen, Opt. Lett. 29, 2521 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

Pansu, R. B.

J.-A. Spitz, R. Yasukuni, N. Sandeau, M. Takano, J.-J. Vachon, R. Meallet-Renault, and R. B. Pansu, J. Microsc. 229, 104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piyawattanametha, W.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pyhtila, J. W.

Reichenbach, K. L.

Reinhardt, J.

M. Suter, J. Reinhardt, P. Montague, P. Taft, J. Lee, J. Zabner, and G. McLennan, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034013(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez, J. J.

S. Srivastava, J. J. Rodríguez, A. R. Rouse, M. A. Brewer, and A. F. Gmitro, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, S.

S. Roth and M. Black, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 82, 205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rouse, A. R.

S. Srivastava, J. J. Rodríguez, A. R. Rouse, M. A. Brewer, and A. F. Gmitro, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rupp, S.

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandeau, N.

J.-A. Spitz, R. Yasukuni, N. Sandeau, M. Takano, J.-J. Vachon, R. Meallet-Renault, and R. B. Pansu, J. Microsc. 229, 104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibel, E. J.

Smitha, D.

S. Alaruria, T. Bonsetta, D. Smitha, F. Macria, A. Brewingtona, and D. Wildman, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 277(2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, C. G.

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, J. U. Kang, and C. G. Song, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, Electron. Lett. 45, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spitz, J.-A.

J.-A. Spitz, R. Yasukuni, N. Sandeau, M. Takano, J.-J. Vachon, R. Meallet-Renault, and R. B. Pansu, J. Microsc. 229, 104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srivastava, S.

S. Srivastava, J. J. Rodríguez, A. R. Rouse, M. A. Brewer, and A. F. Gmitro, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, M.

M. Suter, J. Reinhardt, P. Montague, P. Taft, J. Lee, J. Zabner, and G. McLennan, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034013(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taft, P.

M. Suter, J. Reinhardt, P. Montague, P. Taft, J. Lee, J. Zabner, and G. McLennan, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034013(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takano, M.

J.-A. Spitz, R. Yasukuni, N. Sandeau, M. Takano, J.-J. Vachon, R. Meallet-Renault, and R. B. Pansu, J. Microsc. 229, 104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tatam, R. P.

Tearney, G. J.

Vachon, J.-J.

J.-A. Spitz, R. Yasukuni, N. Sandeau, M. Takano, J.-J. Vachon, R. Meallet-Renault, and R. B. Pansu, J. Microsc. 229, 104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

Wildman, D.

S. Alaruria, T. Bonsetta, D. Smitha, F. Macria, A. Brewingtona, and D. Wildman, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 277(2001).
[CrossRef]

Winter, C.

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittenberg, T.

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, T.

Xu, C.

Yasukuni, R.

J.-A. Spitz, R. Yasukuni, N. Sandeau, M. Takano, J.-J. Vachon, R. Meallet-Renault, and R. B. Pansu, J. Microsc. 229, 104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yelin, R.

Zabner, J.

M. Suter, J. Reinhardt, P. Montague, P. Taft, J. Lee, J. Zabner, and G. McLennan, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034013(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, Electron. Lett. 45, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (1)

S. Roth and M. Black, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 82, 205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

M. Suter, J. Reinhardt, P. Montague, P. Taft, J. Lee, J. Zabner, and G. McLennan, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034013(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srivastava, J. J. Rodríguez, A. R. Rouse, M. A. Brewer, and A. F. Gmitro, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

J.-A. Spitz, R. Yasukuni, N. Sandeau, M. Takano, J.-J. Vachon, R. Meallet-Renault, and R. B. Pansu, J. Microsc. 229, 104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Multiscale Model. Simul. (1)

A. Buades, B. Coll, and J.-M. Morel, Multiscale Model. Simul. 4, 490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (2)

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. M. Dickens, M. P. Houlne, S. Mitra, and D. J. Bornhop, Opt. Eng. 38, 1836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

S. Alaruria, T. Bonsetta, D. Smitha, F. Macria, A. Brewingtona, and D. Wildman, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 277(2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

C. Kervrann and J. Boulanger, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV’06), Part IV (Springer-Verlag, 2006), pp. 555–567.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the setup for the fiber bundle imager based optical coherence tomography. The light beam is focused and coupled to the pixels of the fiber bundle imager at the proximal entrance with a lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Original images obtained by optical coherence tomography (en face image). (a) Image of a fiber bundle layout without a sample (mirrored image of the fiber bundle structure including the damaged or nonuniform response from each fiber pixel core), (b) image of the USAF resolution chart using the fiber bundle imager [20]. We clearly observed the pixelated bars and numbers by structural artifact of the imaging probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstruction procedure for the image of the USAF resolution chart by depixelating the structural artifact of the fiber bundle imager based on our proposed approach: (a) 50 iterations, (b) 100 iterations, (c) 500 iterations, and (d) 1500 iterations.

Equations (3)

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p ( y ) = 1 Z ( θ ) i = 1 N log ϕ i ( J i T y ; α i ) , θ = { θ 1 , , θ N } ,
ϕ i ( J i T y ; α i ) = ( 1 + 1 2 ( J i T y ) 2 ) α i ,
y k + 1 = y k + η M [ i = 1 N J i * ψ i ( J i * y k ) ] ,

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