Abstract

We report an InP-based deep-ridge NPN transistor laser (TL, λ1.5μm). By placing the quantum well (QW) active material above the heavily Zn-doped base layer, both the optical absorption of the heavily p-doped base material and the damage of the quality of the QWs resulted from the Zn diffusion into the QWs are decreased greatly. CW operation of the TL is achieved at 40°C, which is much better than the shallow-ridge InP-based NPN TL. With future optimization of the growth procedure, significant improvement of the performance of the deep-ridge InP-based NPN TLs is expected.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Shibata, Y. Mori, Y. Sasai, N. Hase, H. Serizawa, and T. Kajiwara, Electron. Lett. 21, 98 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Walter, N. Holonyak, Jr., M. Feng, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4768 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., G. Walter, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Y. Huang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, M. Feng, and N. Holonyak, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (3)

Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, N. Holonyak, Jr., and M. Feng, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 114505(2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Dixon, M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021111(2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Liang, H. L. Zhu, and W. Wang, “NPN heterojunction bipolar transistor laser,” China patent 200810240353.3 (2008).

2006 (1)

N. Holonyak, Jr., and M. Feng, IEEE Spectrum 43, 50 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., G. Walter, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. Walter, N. Holonyak, Jr., M. Feng, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Kurishima, T. Kobayashi, H. Ito, and U. Gosele, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 4017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

J. Shibata, Y. Mori, Y. Sasai, N. Hase, H. Serizawa, and T. Kajiwara, Electron. Lett. 21, 98 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mori, J. Shibata, Y. Sasai, H. Serizawa, and T. Kaijiwara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 649 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Arai, S.

M. Shirao, T. Sato, Y. Takino, N. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Lasing operation of long-wavelength transistor laser using a GaInAs/InP quantum well active region,” presented at the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, Berlin, Germany, May 22–26, 2011, paper Tu-3.2.4.

Chai, G.

Chan, R.

M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., G. Walter, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Walter, N. Holonyak, Jr., M. Feng, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, L.

Dixon, F.

Y. Huang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, M. Feng, and N. Holonyak, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, N. Holonyak, Jr., and M. Feng, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 114505(2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Dixon, M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021111(2008).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Z.

Dupuis, R. D.

Y. Huang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, M. Feng, and N. Holonyak, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, N. Holonyak, Jr., and M. Feng, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 114505(2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Dixon, M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021111(2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, M.

Y. Huang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, M. Feng, and N. Holonyak, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, N. Holonyak, Jr., and M. Feng, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 114505(2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Dixon, M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021111(2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Holonyak, Jr., and M. Feng, IEEE Spectrum 43, 50 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., G. Walter, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Walter, N. Holonyak, Jr., M. Feng, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gosele, U.

K. Kurishima, T. Kobayashi, H. Ito, and U. Gosele, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 4017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hase, N.

J. Shibata, Y. Mori, Y. Sasai, N. Hase, H. Serizawa, and T. Kajiwara, Electron. Lett. 21, 98 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Holonyak, N.

Y. Huang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, M. Feng, and N. Holonyak, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, N. Holonyak, Jr., and M. Feng, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 114505(2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Dixon, M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021111(2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Holonyak, Jr., and M. Feng, IEEE Spectrum 43, 50 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., G. Walter, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Walter, N. Holonyak, Jr., M. Feng, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, M. Feng, and N. Holonyak, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Dixon, M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021111(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, N. Holonyak, Jr., and M. Feng, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 114505(2008).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

K. Kurishima, T. Kobayashi, H. Ito, and U. Gosele, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 4017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaijiwara, T.

Y. Mori, J. Shibata, Y. Sasai, H. Serizawa, and T. Kaijiwara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 649 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kajiwara, T.

J. Shibata, Y. Mori, Y. Sasai, N. Hase, H. Serizawa, and T. Kajiwara, Electron. Lett. 21, 98 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

K. Kurishima, T. Kobayashi, H. Ito, and U. Gosele, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 4017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kurishima, K.

K. Kurishima, T. Kobayashi, H. Ito, and U. Gosele, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 4017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liang, S.

S. Liang, H. L. Zhu, and W. Wang, “NPN heterojunction bipolar transistor laser,” China patent 200810240353.3 (2008).

Mori, Y.

Y. Mori, J. Shibata, Y. Sasai, H. Serizawa, and T. Kaijiwara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 649 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Shibata, Y. Mori, Y. Sasai, N. Hase, H. Serizawa, and T. Kajiwara, Electron. Lett. 21, 98 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nishiyama, N.

M. Shirao, T. Sato, Y. Takino, N. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Lasing operation of long-wavelength transistor laser using a GaInAs/InP quantum well active region,” presented at the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, Berlin, Germany, May 22–26, 2011, paper Tu-3.2.4.

Ryou, J. H.

Y. Huang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, M. Feng, and N. Holonyak, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Dixon, M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021111(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, N. Holonyak, Jr., and M. Feng, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 114505(2008).
[CrossRef]

Sasai, Y.

J. Shibata, Y. Mori, Y. Sasai, N. Hase, H. Serizawa, and T. Kajiwara, Electron. Lett. 21, 98 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mori, J. Shibata, Y. Sasai, H. Serizawa, and T. Kaijiwara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 649 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sato, N.

M. Shirao, T. Sato, Y. Takino, N. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Lasing operation of long-wavelength transistor laser using a GaInAs/InP quantum well active region,” presented at the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, Berlin, Germany, May 22–26, 2011, paper Tu-3.2.4.

Sato, T.

M. Shirao, T. Sato, Y. Takino, N. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Lasing operation of long-wavelength transistor laser using a GaInAs/InP quantum well active region,” presented at the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, Berlin, Germany, May 22–26, 2011, paper Tu-3.2.4.

Serizawa, H.

Y. Mori, J. Shibata, Y. Sasai, H. Serizawa, and T. Kaijiwara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 649 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Shibata, Y. Mori, Y. Sasai, N. Hase, H. Serizawa, and T. Kajiwara, Electron. Lett. 21, 98 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

Shibata, J.

Y. Mori, J. Shibata, Y. Sasai, H. Serizawa, and T. Kaijiwara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 649 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Shibata, Y. Mori, Y. Sasai, N. Hase, H. Serizawa, and T. Kajiwara, Electron. Lett. 21, 98 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shirao, M.

M. Shirao, T. Sato, Y. Takino, N. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Lasing operation of long-wavelength transistor laser using a GaInAs/InP quantum well active region,” presented at the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, Berlin, Germany, May 22–26, 2011, paper Tu-3.2.4.

Takino, Y.

M. Shirao, T. Sato, Y. Takino, N. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Lasing operation of long-wavelength transistor laser using a GaInAs/InP quantum well active region,” presented at the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, Berlin, Germany, May 22–26, 2011, paper Tu-3.2.4.

Walter, G.

M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., G. Walter, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Walter, N. Holonyak, Jr., M. Feng, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

S. Liang, H. L. Zhu, and W. Wang, “NPN heterojunction bipolar transistor laser,” China patent 200810240353.3 (2008).

Zhang, X. B.

Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, N. Holonyak, Jr., and M. Feng, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 114505(2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Dixon, M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021111(2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, N.

Zhu, H. L.

S. Liang, H. L. Zhu, and W. Wang, “NPN heterojunction bipolar transistor laser,” China patent 200810240353.3 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Mori, J. Shibata, Y. Sasai, H. Serizawa, and T. Kaijiwara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 649 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Walter, N. Holonyak, Jr., M. Feng, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., G. Walter, and R. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Dixon, M. Feng, N. Holonyak, Jr., Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021111(2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Shibata, Y. Mori, Y. Sasai, N. Hase, H. Serizawa, and T. Kajiwara, Electron. Lett. 21, 98 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Spectrum (1)

N. Holonyak, Jr., and M. Feng, IEEE Spectrum 43, 50 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

Y. Huang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, M. Feng, and N. Holonyak, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, F. Dixon, N. Holonyak, Jr., and M. Feng, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 114505(2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kurishima, T. Kobayashi, H. Ito, and U. Gosele, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 4017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (2)

S. Liang, H. L. Zhu, and W. Wang, “NPN heterojunction bipolar transistor laser,” China patent 200810240353.3 (2008).

M. Shirao, T. Sato, Y. Takino, N. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Lasing operation of long-wavelength transistor laser using a GaInAs/InP quantum well active region,” presented at the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, Berlin, Germany, May 22–26, 2011, paper Tu-3.2.4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic structure of an InP-based deep-ridge TL (only half of the symmetric ridge waveguide is shown).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section SEM image of the ridge waveguide of a deep-ridge TL.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CE I - V characteristics of a deep-ridge TL working at 70 ° C .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light output power-base current ( L I B ) characteristics of the deep-ridge TL at different temperatures with CW operation with V CE = 1.0 V . The inset shows the 70 ° C optical spectra of the TL at two different base currents.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stimulated emission spectra of the TL at different temperatures with CW operation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Room-temperature PL spectra of the QWs in different TLs. Spectrum 1 is for a shallow-ridge TL with QWs embedded in the base layer, spectrum 2 is for a deep-ridge TL grown in a single MOCVD run, spectrum 3 is for a deep-ridge TL with a two-step MOCVD growth procedure. Except for the above differences, the structures of the three TLs are identical. The parameters for the QWs are the same for the three TLs.

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