Abstract

We have designed and analyzed a novel (to the best of our knowledge) two-beam interference lithography system for large-area (wafer-level) nanopatterning with enhanced tunability of pattern periodicities. The tunable feature has been achieved by placing two rotational mirrors in the expanded beam paths at regulated angles for a desired period. Theoretical analyses show that the effective pattern coverage area greater than a 4in. (10cm) wafer scale is attainable with a 325nm (30cm coherence length) HeCd laser and 4in. (10cm) mirrors, while the pattern coverage area is restrained by the overruling effects between the optical coherence and mirror size. The experimental results also demonstrate uniform nanopatterns at varying periods (250750nm) on 4in. (10cm) substrates, validating the theoretical analyses. The tunable two-mirror interferometer will offer a convenient and robust way to prepare large-area nanostructures on a wafer scale with superior tunability in their pattern periodicities.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

J. De Boor, N. Geyer, U. Gosele, and V. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 34, 1783 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Wathuthanthri and C.-H. Choi, in Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 2009, Vol. 12 (ASME, 2009), paper IMECE2009-10895.

2008 (1)

Q. Xie, M. H. Hong, H. L. Tan, G. X. Chen, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, J. Alloys Compd. 449, 261 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

W. D. Mao, G. Q. Liang, Y. Y. Pu, H. Z. Wang, and Z. H. Zeng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, M. H. Hong, J. Y. H. Fuh, L. Lu, and B. S. Lukiyanchuk, Phys. Scr. T129, 35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Jesson, K. M. Pavlov, M. J. Morgan, and B. F. Usher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

M. E. Walsh, “On the design of lithographic interferometers and their application,” Ph.D. thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004).

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Adv. Mater. 15, 1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

S. Kuiper, H. van Wolferen, G. van Rijn, W. Nijdam, G. Krijnen, and M. Elwenspoek, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Smith, Physica E 11, 104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Farhoud, J. Ferrera, A. J. Lochtefeld, T. E. Murphy, M. L. Schattenburg, J. Carter, C. A. Ross, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, J.

M. Farhoud, J. Ferrera, A. J. Lochtefeld, T. E. Murphy, M. L. Schattenburg, J. Carter, C. A. Ross, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Adv. Mater. 15, 1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. X.

Q. Xie, M. H. Hong, H. L. Tan, G. X. Chen, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, J. Alloys Compd. 449, 261 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. L.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.-H.

I. Wathuthanthri, W. D. Mao, and C.-H. Choi, Opt. Lett. 36, 1593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Wathuthanthri and C.-H. Choi, in Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 2009, Vol. 12 (ASME, 2009), paper IMECE2009-10895.

C.-H. Choi and C. J. Kim, Nanotechnology 17, 5326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chong, T. C.

Q. Xie, M. H. Hong, H. L. Tan, G. X. Chen, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, J. Alloys Compd. 449, 261 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Boor, J.

Denning, R. G.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, J. W.

Elwenspoek, M.

S. Kuiper, H. van Wolferen, G. van Rijn, W. Nijdam, G. Krijnen, and M. Elwenspoek, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Farhoud, M.

M. Farhoud, J. Ferrera, A. J. Lochtefeld, T. E. Murphy, M. L. Schattenburg, J. Carter, C. A. Ross, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feigel, A.

Ferrera, J.

M. Farhoud, J. Ferrera, A. J. Lochtefeld, T. E. Murphy, M. L. Schattenburg, J. Carter, C. A. Ross, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, J. Y. H.

Y. Zhou, M. H. Hong, J. Y. H. Fuh, L. Lu, and B. S. Lukiyanchuk, Phys. Scr. T129, 35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, N.

Gosele, U.

Han, Y. J.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, M. T.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, M. H.

Q. Xie, M. H. Hong, H. L. Tan, G. X. Chen, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, J. Alloys Compd. 449, 261 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, M. H. Hong, J. Y. H. Fuh, L. Lu, and B. S. Lukiyanchuk, Phys. Scr. T129, 35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jesson, D. E.

D. E. Jesson, K. M. Pavlov, M. J. Morgan, and B. F. Usher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C. J.

C.-H. Choi and C. J. Kim, Nanotechnology 17, 5326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

Kotler, Z.

Krijnen, G.

S. Kuiper, H. van Wolferen, G. van Rijn, W. Nijdam, G. Krijnen, and M. Elwenspoek, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper, H. van Wolferen, G. van Rijn, W. Nijdam, G. Krijnen, and M. Elwenspoek, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liang, G. Q.

W. D. Mao, G. Q. Liang, Y. Y. Pu, H. Z. Wang, and Z. H. Zeng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Mao, G. Q. Liang, H. Zou, and H. Z. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 1708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lochtefeld, A. J.

M. Farhoud, J. Ferrera, A. J. Lochtefeld, T. E. Murphy, M. L. Schattenburg, J. Carter, C. A. Ross, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, L.

Y. Zhou, M. H. Hong, J. Y. H. Fuh, L. Lu, and B. S. Lukiyanchuk, Phys. Scr. T129, 35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lukiyanchuk, B. S.

Y. Zhou, M. H. Hong, J. Y. H. Fuh, L. Lu, and B. S. Lukiyanchuk, Phys. Scr. T129, 35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maldovan, M.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mao, W. D.

Morgan, M. J.

D. E. Jesson, K. M. Pavlov, M. J. Morgan, and B. F. Usher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, T. E.

M. Farhoud, J. Ferrera, A. J. Lochtefeld, T. E. Murphy, M. L. Schattenburg, J. Carter, C. A. Ross, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ng, C. Y.

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Adv. Mater. 15, 1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nijdam, W.

S. Kuiper, H. van Wolferen, G. van Rijn, W. Nijdam, G. Krijnen, and M. Elwenspoek, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y. K.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, K. M.

D. E. Jesson, K. M. Pavlov, M. J. Morgan, and B. F. Usher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pu, Y. Y.

W. D. Mao, G. Q. Liang, Y. Y. Pu, H. Z. Wang, and Z. H. Zeng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ross, C. A.

M. Farhoud, J. Ferrera, A. J. Lochtefeld, T. E. Murphy, M. L. Schattenburg, J. Carter, C. A. Ross, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schattenburg, M. L.

M. Farhoud, J. Ferrera, A. J. Lochtefeld, T. E. Murphy, M. L. Schattenburg, J. Carter, C. A. Ross, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, V.

Sfez, B.

Sharp, D. N.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, P.

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Adv. Mater. 15, 1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L. P.

Q. Xie, M. H. Hong, H. L. Tan, G. X. Chen, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, J. Alloys Compd. 449, 261 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

H. I. Smith, Physica E 11, 104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Farhoud, J. Ferrera, A. J. Lochtefeld, T. E. Murphy, M. L. Schattenburg, J. Carter, C. A. Ross, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Su, H. M.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tam, W. Y.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Adv. Mater. 15, 1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. L.

Q. Xie, M. H. Hong, H. L. Tan, G. X. Chen, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, J. Alloys Compd. 449, 261 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. L.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turberfield, A. J.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullal, C. K.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Usher, B. F.

D. E. Jesson, K. M. Pavlov, M. J. Morgan, and B. F. Usher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Rijn, G.

S. Kuiper, H. van Wolferen, G. van Rijn, W. Nijdam, G. Krijnen, and M. Elwenspoek, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Wolferen, H.

S. Kuiper, H. van Wolferen, G. van Rijn, W. Nijdam, G. Krijnen, and M. Elwenspoek, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, M. E.

M. E. Walsh, “On the design of lithographic interferometers and their application,” Ph.D. thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004).

Wang, H. Z.

W. D. Mao, G. Q. Liang, Y. Y. Pu, H. Z. Wang, and Z. H. Zeng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Mao, G. Q. Liang, H. Zou, and H. Z. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 1708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Mao, Y. C. Zhong, J. W. Dong, and H. Z. Wang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Adv. Mater. 15, 1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wathuthanthri, I.

I. Wathuthanthri, W. D. Mao, and C.-H. Choi, Opt. Lett. 36, 1593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Wathuthanthri and C.-H. Choi, in Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 2009, Vol. 12 (ASME, 2009), paper IMECE2009-10895.

Xie, Q.

Q. Xie, M. H. Hong, H. L. Tan, G. X. Chen, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, J. Alloys Compd. 449, 261 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. F.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Z. H.

W. D. Mao, G. Q. Liang, Y. Y. Pu, H. Z. Wang, and Z. H. Zeng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Y. C.

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, M. H. Hong, J. Y. H. Fuh, L. Lu, and B. S. Lukiyanchuk, Phys. Scr. T129, 35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zou, H.

Adv. Mater. (1)

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Adv. Mater. 15, 1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Mao, G. Q. Liang, Y. Y. Pu, H. Z. Wang, and Z. H. Zeng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

Q. Xie, M. H. Hong, H. L. Tan, G. X. Chen, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, J. Alloys Compd. 449, 261 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

S. Kuiper, H. van Wolferen, G. van Rijn, W. Nijdam, G. Krijnen, and M. Elwenspoek, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Farhoud, J. Ferrera, A. J. Lochtefeld, T. E. Murphy, M. L. Schattenburg, J. Carter, C. A. Ross, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

C.-H. Choi and C. J. Kim, Nanotechnology 17, 5326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. E. Jesson, K. M. Pavlov, M. J. Morgan, and B. F. Usher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

Y. Zhou, M. H. Hong, J. Y. H. Fuh, L. Lu, and B. S. Lukiyanchuk, Phys. Scr. T129, 35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Physica E (1)

H. I. Smith, Physica E 11, 104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. E. Walsh, “On the design of lithographic interferometers and their application,” Ph.D. thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004).

I. Wathuthanthri and C.-H. Choi, in Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 2009, Vol. 12 (ASME, 2009), paper IMECE2009-10895.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a two-mirror IL system with the geometrical parameters of the tunable components.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Theoretical determination of the effective pattern coverage at varying pattern periodicities in the case of L m = 10.16 cm , L opd = 10.16 cm , and λ = 325 nm . The effective pattern coverage of the conventional Lloyd’s mirror configuration is also plotted for comparison [18]. (b)–(d) Theoretical pattern coverage for different mirror sizes ( L m ) and critical fringe visibility values ( V c ) in the case of using an HeCd laser of λ = 325 nm and σ = 425 MHz .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fabricated 1D nanograting patterns at different periods. The three columns, from left to right, correspond to the periods of 250, 500, and 750 nm , respectively. The first row shows the optical images of the whole substrates after lithography. C, T, B, L, and R represent five different locations on the 4 in . ( 10 cm ) wafers for the SEM measurements that are shown in the following rows, respectively. The scale bar in each SEM image represents 250 nm .

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P = λ / ( 2 sin θ ) ,
L = L m sin β cos 2 β = L m cos θ / 2 cos θ ,
L = L m 2 P 2 4 P 2 λ 2 + P 4 P 2 λ 2 .
V = V ( I ) × V ( L opd ) = exp [ ( π σ / c ) 2 ( L opd ) 2 ] ,
L = L opd / sin θ .
L = 2 L opd P / λ ,
L = 2 ( c / π σ ) ln V c λ P ,

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