Abstract

The ultraviolet (UV) band edge photorefractivity of Sn-doped LiNbO3 (LN:Sn) at 325nm has been investigated. A sharp decrease of beam distortion, which is accompanied by a significant increase in the photoconductivity, is observed in LN:Sn crystals with Sn-doping concentrations at or above 2.0mol%. The diffraction efficiency, the holographic recording sensitivity and response rate, and the two-wave coupling gain coefficient are greatly enhanced when the Sn-doping concentration reaches 2.0mol% or more. Unlike LiNbO3 doped with Hf in which the UV gratings can be erased easily by a red beam, the UV gratings in LN:Sn can withstand long-term red beam illumination. Electrons are determined to be the dominant light-induced charge carriers responsible for the UV band edge photorefraction. The observed enhancement on the UV band edge photorefractivity is found to be associated with the showup of an absorption band around 325nm in LN:Sn crystals with Sn-doping concentrations at or above 2.0mol%.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010

2009

2008

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Lithium Niobate: Defects, Photorefraction and Ferroelectric Switching (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2008).

2007

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

1996

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Oxford University Press, New York, 1996).

1992

R. Jungen, G. Angelow, F. Laeri, and C. Grabmaier, Appl. Phys. A 55, 101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham, Wash.) 22, 704 (1983).

Angelow, G.

R. Jungen, G. Angelow, F. Laeri, and C. Grabmaier, Appl. Phys. A 55, 101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bo, F.

F. Xin, G. Zhang, F. Bo, H. Sun, Y. Kong, J. Xu, T. Volk, and N. Rubinina, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

Cristiani, I.

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grabmaier, C.

R. Jungen, G. Angelow, F. Laeri, and C. Grabmaier, Appl. Phys. A 55, 101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, J. B.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Oxford University Press, New York, 1996).

Huang, Z.

Jungen, R.

R. Jungen, G. Angelow, F. Laeri, and C. Grabmaier, Appl. Phys. A 55, 101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham, Wash.) 22, 704 (1983).

Kokanyan, E.

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kokanyan, E. P.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y.

Laeri, F.

R. Jungen, G. Angelow, F. Laeri, and C. Grabmaier, Appl. Phys. A 55, 101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

Li, W.

Liu, F.

Liu, H.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 35, 10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Minzioni, P.

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, H.

Razzari, L.

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubinina, N.

F. Xin, G. Zhang, F. Bo, H. Sun, Y. Kong, J. Xu, T. Volk, and N. Rubinina, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, R.

Shi, L.

Solymar, L.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Oxford University Press, New York, 1996).

Song, F.

Sun, H.

F. Xin, G. Zhang, F. Bo, H. Sun, Y. Kong, J. Xu, T. Volk, and N. Rubinina, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham, Wash.) 22, 704 (1983).

Volk, T.

F. Xin, G. Zhang, F. Bo, H. Sun, Y. Kong, J. Xu, T. Volk, and N. Rubinina, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Lithium Niobate: Defects, Photorefraction and Ferroelectric Switching (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2008).

Wang, L.

Webb, D. J.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Oxford University Press, New York, 1996).

Wöhlecke, M.

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Lithium Niobate: Defects, Photorefraction and Ferroelectric Switching (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2008).

Wu, L.

Xin, F.

F. Xin, G. Zhang, F. Bo, H. Sun, Y. Kong, J. Xu, T. Volk, and N. Rubinina, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

F. Xin, G. Zhang, F. Bo, H. Sun, Y. Kong, J. Xu, T. Volk, and N. Rubinina, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Kong, S. Chen, Z. Huang, L. Wu, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 35, 883 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 35, 10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and L. Zhao, Opt. Lett. 25, 129 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.

Yao, J.

Zhang, G.

F. Xin, G. Zhang, F. Bo, H. Sun, Y. Kong, J. Xu, T. Volk, and N. Rubinina, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and L. Zhao, Opt. Lett. 25, 129 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, L.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

R. Jungen, G. Angelow, F. Laeri, and C. Grabmaier, Appl. Phys. A 55, 101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

F. Xin, G. Zhang, F. Bo, H. Sun, Y. Kong, J. Xu, T. Volk, and N. Rubinina, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham, Wash.)

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham, Wash.) 22, 704 (1983).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Oxford University Press, New York, 1996).

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Lithium Niobate: Defects, Photorefraction and Ferroelectric Switching (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmitted beam spots of a 900 kW / cm 2 UV beam after a 5 min irradiation. (a–e) correspond to the cases for LN doped with 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 mol % SnO 2 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of UV band edge photorefractive (a) diffraction efficiency, (b) response time, (c) sensitivity, and (d) specific photoconductivity on the doping concentration of Sn.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of UV band edge photorefractive two-wave coupling gain on the Sn-doping concentration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The decay dynamics of the UV band edge photorefractive gratings in CSn4 under the erasure of red beam of 82.7 mW / cm 2 at 633 nm and UV beam of 32.6 mW / cm 2 at 325 nm in sequence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

UV absorption spectra of congruent undoped LN and LN:Sn crystals at 3.8 K .

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