Abstract

A scanning heterodyne I/Q-interferometer scheme is proposed to overcome phase ambiguity caused by the periodic nature of its phase-dependent signal. A position sensing scheme using an astigmatic method in the confocal arrangement has been interfaced to the interferometer to retrieve the real phase value during a scanning process. The experimental results show that the vertical measurement range can be expanded up to 16μm. The potential of this interferometer on the scanning microscopy of a rough surface is discussed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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U. P. Kumar, B. Bhaduri, M. P. Kothiyal, and N. K. Mohan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M.-H. Chiu, B.-Y. Shih, and C.-W. Lai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

X. Jiang, K. Wang, and H. Martin, Opt. Lett. 31, 3603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yin, D. Lin, Z. Liu, and X. Jiang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 596 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. Hnilička, A. Voda, and H. J. Schröder, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

H. Jeong, J. H. Kim, and K. Cho, Opt. Commun. 204, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

1985 (1)

J. Braat, Principles of Optical Disc Systems, G.Bouwhuis, J.Braat, A.Huijser, J.Pasman, G.van Rosmalen, and K.S.Immink, eds. (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1985).

1984 (1)

1976 (1)

C. Bricot, J. C. Lehureau, C. Puech, and F. L. Carvennec, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-22, 304 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appel, R. K.

Bhaduri, B.

U. P. Kumar, B. Bhaduri, M. P. Kothiyal, and N. K. Mohan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J.

J. Braat, Principles of Optical Disc Systems, G.Bouwhuis, J.Braat, A.Huijser, J.Pasman, G.van Rosmalen, and K.S.Immink, eds. (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1985).

Bricot, C.

C. Bricot, J. C. Lehureau, C. Puech, and F. L. Carvennec, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-22, 304 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Carvennec, F. L.

C. Bricot, J. C. Lehureau, C. Puech, and F. L. Carvennec, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-22, 304 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Chiu, M.-H.

M.-H. Chiu, B.-Y. Shih, and C.-W. Lai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K.

Davis, C. C.

Hnilicka, B.

B. Hnilička, A. Voda, and H. J. Schröder, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H.

H. Jeong, J. H. Kim, and K. Cho, Opt. Commun. 204, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, K. Wang, and H. Martin, Opt. Lett. 31, 3603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yin, D. Lin, Z. Liu, and X. Jiang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 596 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. S.

Kim, J. H.

H. Jeong, J. H. Kim, and K. Cho, Opt. Commun. 204, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kothiyal, M. P.

U. P. Kumar, B. Bhaduri, M. P. Kothiyal, and N. K. Mohan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, U. P.

U. P. Kumar, B. Bhaduri, M. P. Kothiyal, and N. K. Mohan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, K. H.

Lai, C.-W.

M.-H. Chiu, B.-Y. Shih, and C.-W. Lai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. S.

Lehureau, J. C.

C. Bricot, J. C. Lehureau, C. Puech, and F. L. Carvennec, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-22, 304 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D.

C. Yin, D. Lin, Z. Liu, and X. Jiang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 596 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Lin, Z. Liu, R. Zhang, J. Yan, C. Yin, and Y. Xu, Appl. Opt. 43, 1472 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

C. Yin, D. Lin, Z. Liu, and X. Jiang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 596 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Lin, Z. Liu, R. Zhang, J. Yan, C. Yin, and Y. Xu, Appl. Opt. 43, 1472 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, H.

Mazzoni, D. L.

Mohan, N. K.

U. P. Kumar, B. Bhaduri, M. P. Kothiyal, and N. K. Mohan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Puech, C.

C. Bricot, J. C. Lehureau, C. Puech, and F. L. Carvennec, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-22, 304 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, H. J.

B. Hnilička, A. Voda, and H. J. Schröder, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shih, B.-Y.

M.-H. Chiu, B.-Y. Shih, and C.-W. Lai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, M. G.

Strand, T. C.

Valera, M. S.

Voda, A.

B. Hnilička, A. Voda, and H. J. Schröder, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Wyant, J. C.

Xu, Y.

Yan, J.

Yin, C.

C. Yin, D. Lin, Z. Liu, and X. Jiang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 596 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Lin, Z. Liu, R. Zhang, J. Yan, C. Yin, and Y. Xu, Appl. Opt. 43, 1472 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M.-H. Chiu, B.-Y. Shih, and C.-W. Lai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

C. Bricot, J. C. Lehureau, C. Puech, and F. L. Carvennec, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-22, 304 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Yin, D. Lin, Z. Liu, and X. Jiang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 596 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Jeong, J. H. Kim, and K. Cho, Opt. Commun. 204, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

U. P. Kumar, B. Bhaduri, M. P. Kothiyal, and N. K. Mohan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sens. Actuators A, Phys. (1)

B. Hnilička, A. Voda, and H. J. Schröder, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Braat, Principles of Optical Disc Systems, G.Bouwhuis, J.Braat, A.Huijser, J.Pasman, G.van Rosmalen, and K.S.Immink, eds. (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1985).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental arrangement. BS; beam splitters; PBSs, polarizing beam splitters; HWPs, half-wave plates; OI, optical isolator; POL, polarizer; Ms, mirrors; AL, astigmatic lens; and QPD, quadrant photodiode. The dashed box indicates the interface optics for astigmatic position sensing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results: (a) FES for 100 × (circles) and 50 × OL (squares), and (b) FES (solid circles) and phase measurements (solid blue line) results of the interferometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement results of a periodic displacement of M1 with (circles) and without (black solid line) the APS scheme.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gray scale images of 3-dimensional structure of a patterned surface obtained by using the (a) HIQI scheme and (b) proposed scanning HIQI-APS scheme.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional profiles taken along the white dotted lines in Fig. 4. The solid circles and solid line represent the height variation without and with the APS, respectively.

Equations (1)

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Δ h = λ 4 π ( Δ φ + n π ) = λ 4 π Δ φ + n λ 4 ,

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