Abstract

In this Letter we report experimental demonstration of nonlinear frequency conversion at several optical frequencies in a whispering-gallery mode resonator (WGMR). Because of the enhancement of nonlinear interactions inside a WGMR, interaction of a 1064nm pump field with a LiNbO3 disk produced a weak but measurable non-phase-matched 532nm second-harmonic field at room temperature (>100°C below the phase-matching temperature) for pump powers of a few tens of milliwatts. For higher pump powers, we observed the generation of four additional fields at 545, 559, 573, and 587nm. The relative spectral shift between two consecutive fields corresponds to a 455cm1 vibrational mode in LiNbO3 crystal. Our preliminary analysis indicates that these fields are the result of a multiphonon hyper-Raman scattering in which two photons of the pump field are converted into one photon of a higher-frequency field and one or several optical phonons.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. N. Oraevsky, Quantum Electron. 32, 377 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A.B.Matsko, ed., Practical Applications of Microresonators in Optics and Photonics (CRC Press, 2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. 137, 393 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Mohageg, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, Opt. Express 15, 4869 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 28, 1507 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, D. V. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 32, 157 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Sasagawa and M. Tsuchiya, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 122401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. N. Denisov, B. N. Mavrin, and V. B. Podobedov, Phys. Rep. 151, 1 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. J. Cyvin, J. E. Rauch, and J. C. Decius, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 4083 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Ridah, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9687 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. F. Schaufele and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 152, 705(1966).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. N. Denisov, B. N. Mavrin, V. B. Podobedov, and Kh. E. Sterin, Opt. Commun. 26, 372 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Claus, G. Borstel, E. Wiesendanger, and L. Steffan, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4878 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Hermet, M. Veithen, and Ph. Ghosez, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 456202 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

K. Sasagawa and M. Tsuchiya, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 122401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A.B.Matsko, ed., Practical Applications of Microresonators in Optics and Photonics (CRC Press, 2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hermet, M. Veithen, and Ph. Ghosez, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 456202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, D. V. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 32, 157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Mohageg, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, Opt. Express 15, 4869 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

A. N. Oraevsky, Quantum Electron. 32, 377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

A. Ridah, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9687 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

V. N. Denisov, B. N. Mavrin, and V. B. Podobedov, Phys. Rep. 151, 1 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978

V. N. Denisov, B. N. Mavrin, V. B. Podobedov, and Kh. E. Sterin, Opt. Commun. 26, 372 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972

R. Claus, G. Borstel, E. Wiesendanger, and L. Steffan, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4878 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966

R. F. Schaufele and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 152, 705(1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

S. J. Cyvin, J. E. Rauch, and J. C. Decius, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 4083 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Aiello, A.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, U. L.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borstel, G.

R. Claus, G. Borstel, E. Wiesendanger, and L. Steffan, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4878 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bourson, P.

A. Ridah, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9687 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R.

R. Claus, G. Borstel, E. Wiesendanger, and L. Steffan, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4878 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cyvin, S. J.

S. J. Cyvin, J. E. Rauch, and J. C. Decius, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 4083 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Decius, J. C.

S. J. Cyvin, J. E. Rauch, and J. C. Decius, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 4083 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Denisov, V. N.

V. N. Denisov, B. N. Mavrin, and V. B. Podobedov, Phys. Rep. 151, 1 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Denisov, B. N. Mavrin, V. B. Podobedov, and Kh. E. Sterin, Opt. Commun. 26, 372 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Elser, D.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontana, M. D.

A. Ridah, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9687 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furst, J. U.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosez, Ph.

P. Hermet, M. Veithen, and Ph. Ghosez, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 456202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hermet, P.

P. Hermet, M. Veithen, and Ph. Ghosez, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 456202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 28, 1507 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lassen, M.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

Malovichko, G.

A. Ridah, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9687 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, Ch.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, D. V. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 32, 157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mavrin, B. N.

V. N. Denisov, B. N. Mavrin, and V. B. Podobedov, Phys. Rep. 151, 1 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Denisov, B. N. Mavrin, V. B. Podobedov, and Kh. E. Sterin, Opt. Commun. 26, 372 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Min, B.

Mohageg, M.

Oraevsky, A. N.

A. N. Oraevsky, Quantum Electron. 32, 377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Podobedov, V. B.

V. N. Denisov, B. N. Mavrin, and V. B. Podobedov, Phys. Rep. 151, 1 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Denisov, B. N. Mavrin, V. B. Podobedov, and Kh. E. Sterin, Opt. Commun. 26, 372 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rauch, J. E.

S. J. Cyvin, J. E. Rauch, and J. C. Decius, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 4083 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ridah, A.

A. Ridah, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9687 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sasagawa, K.

K. Sasagawa and M. Tsuchiya, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 122401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schaufele, R. F.

R. F. Schaufele and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 152, 705(1966).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steffan, L.

R. Claus, G. Borstel, E. Wiesendanger, and L. Steffan, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4878 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sterin, Kh. E.

V. N. Denisov, B. N. Mavrin, V. B. Podobedov, and Kh. E. Sterin, Opt. Commun. 26, 372 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Strekalov, D. V.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, D. V. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 32, 157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, M.

K. Sasagawa and M. Tsuchiya, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 122401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 28, 1507 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veithen, M.

P. Hermet, M. Veithen, and Ph. Ghosez, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 456202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

R. F. Schaufele and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 152, 705(1966).
[CrossRef]

Wiesendanger, E.

R. Claus, G. Borstel, E. Wiesendanger, and L. Steffan, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4878 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

K. Sasagawa and M. Tsuchiya, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 122401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

S. J. Cyvin, J. E. Rauch, and J. C. Decius, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 4083 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

A. Ridah, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9687 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Hermet, M. Veithen, and Ph. Ghosez, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 456202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

V. N. Denisov, B. N. Mavrin, V. B. Podobedov, and Kh. E. Sterin, Opt. Commun. 26, 372 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep.

V. N. Denisov, B. N. Mavrin, and V. B. Podobedov, Phys. Rep. 151, 1 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

R. F. Schaufele and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 152, 705(1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

R. Claus, G. Borstel, E. Wiesendanger, and L. Steffan, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4878 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electron.

A. N. Oraevsky, Quantum Electron. 32, 377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A.B.Matsko, ed., Practical Applications of Microresonators in Optics and Photonics (CRC Press, 2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental apparatus (see text for abbreviations; arrows show polarizations).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of emission from WGMRs. (a) SHG emission from stoichiometric LiNbO 3 disk with 11 mW pump power; (b) emission from same disk at 650 mW pump power and coupling efficiency 70%; (c) emission from MgO: LiNbO 3 disk at 825 mW pump power and coupling efficiency 30%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photon schematics for hyper-Raman scattering and multiphonon hyper-Raman overtones.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(top) Raman scattering of 785 nm from a lithium niobate crystal. (bottom) Emission from lithium niobate WGMR with a 1064 nm pump, referenced to 532 nm . Lines are at 455, 909, 1337 and 1686 cm 1 .

Equations (1)

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P i = α i j E j + 1 2 β i j k E j E k + 1 6 γ i j k l E j E k E l + ,

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