Abstract

We introduce a retroemitter (REM) device comprising a planar glass bead set placed on a luminescent material substrate, which converges an excitation beam into a set of foci (voxels). The in-voxel emission is collimated by the beads, and propagates upstream over the long range, unlike the out-of-voxel emission spreading in all angles. The REM signal contrast is characterized as a function of incidence and observation angles and propagation distance. REM signal contrasts of approximately 20 and 1600 were found for the organic fluorescent dye and upconverting phosphor substrates, respectively. In the latter case, nonlinear optical signal enhancement plays a role in addition to the retroemission effect. This allows centimeter-scale REM patterns to be read out at the meter-scale distance using eye-safe sub-mW/cm2 excitation intensities.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. C. Boyer and F. van Veggel, Nanoscale 2, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Masuno, H. Inoue, J. Yu, and Y. Arai, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 6426(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Nature 383, 804 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aloni, S.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altoe, V.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arai, Y.

A. Masuno, H. Inoue, J. Yu, and Y. Arai, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bischel, W. K.

Boyer, J. C.

J. C. Boyer and F. van Veggel, Nanoscale 2, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, B. E.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, S.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, W.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, G.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, M.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, H.

A. Masuno, H. Inoue, J. Yu, and Y. Arai, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Juskaitis, R.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Nature 383, 804 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, A.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozubek, M.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Nature 383, 804 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krupke, W. F.

Li, L.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mai, H. X.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 6426(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masuno, A.

A. Masuno, H. Inoue, J. Yu, and Y. Arai, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Milliron, D. J.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Page, R. H.

Payne, S. A.

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffers, K. I.

Schuck, P. J.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Si, R.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 6426(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, L. D.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 6426(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talapin, D. V.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, H.

H. Tanaka and S. Tanaka, “Apparatus for detecting modulated informations from emitted light turned by an object,” U.S. patent 5,091,636 (February 25, 1992).

Tanaka, S.

H. Tanaka and S. Tanaka, “Apparatus for detecting modulated informations from emitted light turned by an object,” U.S. patent 5,091,636 (February 25, 1992).

Tassano, J. B.

van Veggel, F.

J. C. Boyer and F. van Veggel, Nanoscale 2, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waide, P. A.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Nature 383, 804 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. W.

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, C. H.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 6426(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, Z. G.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 6426(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, L. P.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 6426(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

A. Masuno, H. Inoue, J. Yu, and Y. Arai, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zavislan, J. M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. W.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 6426(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 6426(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Masuno, H. Inoue, J. Yu, and Y. Arai, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nanoscale (1)

J. C. Boyer and F. van Veggel, Nanoscale 2, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Nature 383, 804 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

S. W. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Tanaka and S. Tanaka, “Apparatus for detecting modulated informations from emitted light turned by an object,” U.S. patent 5,091,636 (February 25, 1992).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup. A diverging laser beam reflects off the dichroic mirror, and illuminates the REM device. The retroemission beam propagates upstream (leftward), through the dichroic and a long pass filter (blocking the reflected laser light), and is detected by the CCD camera. Observation, θ, and incidence angles, ϕ, are shown. (b) REM device: high-refractive-index glass spheres bonded to a fluorescent substrate. (c) CCD image illustrating signal levels from background (bg), plain fluorescent substrate (ref), and REM. Individual beads can be seen at the interface. (d) Simulation showing the focusing of parallel excitation rays by the sphere. (e) Autocollimated rays emitted at the focal point. (f) Emission outside the focal point results in noncollimated rays. (g) Autocollimated REM beam at nonzero incidence angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated REM signal as a function of bead refractive index. (b) Ratio between REM and reference signals as a function of observation angle θ. (c) Ratio between REM and reference signals as a function of angle of incidence ϕ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Luminescence emission spectrum for the UCP. (b) REM signal (circles) and reference UCP signal (squares) as a function of the excitation intensity.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S REM S ref = L in L out f REM f ref ,
S em , focus L in 2 ( R r ) 4 I ex 2 .
S REM , UCP S ref , UCP = L out L in 2 ( R r ) 2 κ f REM f ref ,

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