Abstract

We experimentally and numerically investigate the intracavity ionization of a dilute gas target by an ultrashort pulse inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity. Numerical simulations detail how the dynamic ionization of the gas target limits the achievable peak intensity of the evolving intracavity pulse beyond that of linear cavity losses, setting a constraint on the strength of the nonlinear interaction that can be sustained in such optical cavities. Experimental measurements combined with numerical simulations predict ionization levels in a femtosecond enhancement cavity for the first time. We demonstrate how the resonant response of the femtosecond enhancement cavity can itself be used as a sensitive probe of optical nonlinearities at high intensities.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 33, 1099 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Ruehl, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and I. Hartl, Opt. Lett. 35, 3015 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tunnermann, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 35, 2052 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Paul, J. Johnson, J. Lee, and R. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 33, 2482 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 13, 1672(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Lee, D. Carlson, and R. J. Jones, in High Intensity Lasers and High Field Phenomena, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper HFB5.
  10. L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1964).
  11. M. C. M. van de Sanden, J. M. de Regt, and D. Schram, Phys. Rev. E 47, 2792 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. J. Jones and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 27, 1848 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. J. Jones and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 29, 2812 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. A 10, 1888 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Cavity extreme nonlinear optics,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.4195.

2010 (2)

2008 (3)

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 33, 1099 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Paul, J. Johnson, J. Lee, and R. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 33, 2482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 13, 1672(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

1993 (1)

M. C. M. van de Sanden, J. M. de Regt, and D. Schram, Phys. Rev. E 47, 2792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. A 10, 1888 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1964).

Alahmed, Z. A.

Allison, T. K.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Cavity extreme nonlinear optics,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.4195.

Apolonski, A.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tunnermann, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 35, 2052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

Bernhardt, B.

Carlson, D.

J. Lee, D. Carlson, and R. J. Jones, in High Intensity Lasers and High Field Phenomena, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper HFB5.

Cingöz, A.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Cavity extreme nonlinear optics,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.4195.

de Regt, J. M.

M. C. M. van de Sanden, J. M. de Regt, and D. Schram, Phys. Rev. E 47, 2792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eidam, T.

Fermann, M. E.

Fernandez, A.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, E.

Gohle, C.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graf, R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tunnermann, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 35, 2052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Herrmann, M.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, J.

Jones, R. J.

J. Paul, J. Johnson, J. Lee, and R. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 33, 2482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 13, 1672(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 29, 2812 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 27, 1848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, D. Carlson, and R. J. Jones, in High Intensity Lasers and High Field Phenomena, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper HFB5.

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1964).

Krausz, F.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tunnermann, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 35, 2052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

J. Paul, J. Johnson, J. Lee, and R. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 33, 2482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, D. Carlson, and R. J. Jones, in High Intensity Lasers and High Field Phenomena, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper HFB5.

Limpert, J.

Marcinkevicius, A.

Moll, K. D.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 13, 1672(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozawa, A.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tunnermann, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 35, 2052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, J.

Pervak, V.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pupeza, I.

Rauschenberger, J.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tunnermann, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 35, 2052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruehl, A.

Schibli, T. R.

Schram, D.

M. C. M. van de Sanden, J. M. de Regt, and D. Schram, Phys. Rev. E 47, 2792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schuessler, H. A.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorpe, M. J.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnermann, A.

Udem, T.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tunnermann, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 35, 2052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Sanden, M. C. M.

M. C. M. van de Sanden, J. M. de Regt, and D. Schram, Phys. Rev. E 47, 2792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D. R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. A 10, 1888 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Yost, D. C.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 33, 1099 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Cavity extreme nonlinear optics,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.4195.

Nature (1)

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. A 10, 1888 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. C. M. van de Sanden, J. M. de Regt, and D. Schram, Phys. Rev. E 47, 2792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1964).

Other (2)

J. Lee, D. Carlson, and R. J. Jones, in High Intensity Lasers and High Field Phenomena, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper HFB5.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Cavity extreme nonlinear optics,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.4195.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup (pulse stretcher and compressor not shown). fsAC, femtosecond amplification cavity; fsEC, femtosecond enhancement cavity; PD, photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimentally measured and (b) numerically simulated resonant line shapes of the fsEC at vacuum (dashed line) and in the presence of an intracavity gas target for increasing pressures. Insets show (a) backing and (b) actual gas pressures used in the experiment and simulations, respectively. Incident pulse energy is 57 nJ . The detuning at the maximum pulse enhancement, Δ p = 61 kHz , is shown by the vertical dotted line for the case of 20 Torr gas pressure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical simulation of (a) intracavity peak pulse intensity and (b) round-trip nonlinear phase shift (and corresponding plasma density ρ) at various gas pressures at detunings Δ p determined from Fig. 2.

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