Abstract

We report on CW second-harmonic generation in selectively oxidized AlGaAs multilayer waveguides. Frequency doubling of a 1.55μm pump is observed with 2.8%W1 conversion efficiency and a maximum second-harmonic power around 0.3mW. This is the strongest second-harmonic generation ever reported in semiconductor waveguides and an encouraging result toward integrated spontaneous parametric downconversion in the telecom range.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 4th ed. (Springer, 1998).
  2. J. A. Giordmaine and R. C. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973(1965).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Werle, Spectrochim. Acta A 54, 197 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. L. Salter, R. M. Stevenson, I. Farrer, C. A. Nicoll, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, Nature 465, 594 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Moutzouris, S. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Yu, L. Scaccabarozzi, J. S. Harris, Jr., P. Kuo, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Express 13, 10742 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Abolghasem, J. Han, B. J. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1462 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, and S. S. Kano, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 596 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. Y.-L. Chang, W. Widdra, S. Yi, J. Merz, W. H. Weinberg, and E. Hu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2605 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

C. L. Salter, R. M. Stevenson, I. Farrer, C. A. Nicoll, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, Nature 465, 594 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

P. Abolghasem, J. Han, B. J. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

K. Moutzouris, S. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, Spectrochim. Acta A 54, 197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y.-L. Chang, W. Widdra, S. Yi, J. Merz, W. H. Weinberg, and E. Hu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, and S. S. Kano, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. A. Giordmaine and R. C. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973(1965).
[CrossRef]

Abolghasem, P.

P. Abolghasem, J. Han, B. J. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

K. Moutzouris, S. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bijlani, B. J.

P. Abolghasem, J. Han, B. J. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bravetti, P.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

K. Moutzouris, S. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Chang, W. Widdra, S. Yi, J. Merz, W. H. Weinberg, and E. Hu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

K. Moutzouris, S. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delobel, L.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

K. Moutzouris, S. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Farrer, I.

C. L. Salter, R. M. Stevenson, I. Farrer, C. A. Nicoll, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, Nature 465, 594 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M.

Fejer, M. M.

Fiore, A.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fukatsu, S.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, and S. S. Kano, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gehrsitz, S.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghiglieno, F.

E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giordmaine, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine and R. C. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973(1965).
[CrossRef]

Gourgon, C.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guillotel, E.

E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

P. Abolghasem, J. Han, B. J. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

Harris, J. S.

Helmy, A. S.

P. Abolghasem, J. Han, B. J. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herres, N.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

Y.-L. Chang, W. Widdra, S. Yi, J. Merz, W. H. Weinberg, and E. Hu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

Ito, R.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, and S. S. Kano, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kano, S. S.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, and S. S. Kano, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, and S. S. Kano, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kumata, K.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, and S. S. Kano, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, P.

Langlois, C.

E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leo, G.

E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Merz, J.

Y.-L. Chang, W. Widdra, S. Yi, J. Merz, W. H. Weinberg, and E. Hu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. C.

J. A. Giordmaine and R. C. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973(1965).
[CrossRef]

Moutzouris, K.

K. Moutzouris, S. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagle, J.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nicoll, C. A.

C. L. Salter, R. M. Stevenson, I. Farrer, C. A. Nicoll, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, Nature 465, 594 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohashi, M.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, and S. S. Kano, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz, V.

K. Moutzouris, S. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rao, S.

K. Moutzouris, S. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reinhart, F. K.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ricolleau, C.

E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

C. L. Salter, R. M. Stevenson, I. Farrer, C. A. Nicoll, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, Nature 465, 594 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosencher, E.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salter, C. L.

C. L. Salter, R. M. Stevenson, I. Farrer, C. A. Nicoll, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, Nature 465, 594 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scaccabarozzi, L.

Shields, A. J.

C. L. Salter, R. M. Stevenson, I. Farrer, C. A. Nicoll, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, Nature 465, 594 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiraki, Y.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, and S. S. Kano, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sigg, H.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, R. M.

C. L. Salter, R. M. Stevenson, I. Farrer, C. A. Nicoll, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, Nature 465, 594 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Dekker, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 4th ed. (Springer, 1998).

van der Meer, P.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vonlanthen, A.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, W. H.

Y.-L. Chang, W. Widdra, S. Yi, J. Merz, W. H. Weinberg, and E. Hu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, Spectrochim. Acta A 54, 197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Widdra, W.

Y.-L. Chang, W. Widdra, S. Yi, J. Merz, W. H. Weinberg, and E. Hu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yi, S.

Y.-L. Chang, W. Widdra, S. Yi, J. Merz, W. H. Weinberg, and E. Hu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Moutzouris, S. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Abolghasem, J. Han, B. J. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, and S. S. Kano, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

Y.-L. Chang, W. Widdra, S. Yi, J. Merz, W. H. Weinberg, and E. Hu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 2605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Salter, R. M. Stevenson, I. Farrer, C. A. Nicoll, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, Nature 465, 594 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. A. Giordmaine and R. C. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973(1965).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta A (1)

P. Werle, Spectrochim. Acta A 54, 197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 4th ed. (Springer, 1998).

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Dekker, 2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive index profile (thin solid line), TE-polarized FH (dashed line), and TM-polarized SH (thick solid line) fundamental phase-matched modes represented along the growth direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental SH power versus FH wavelength. The photodiode signal (dashed line) is fitted with a Lorentzian envelope (solid line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PM wavelength as a function of (a) temperature (the square dots represent the experimental values and the solid-line fit provides a 0.13 nm / K coefficient, in fair agreement with the prediction of 0.16 nm / K provided by the Gehrsitz model [12]), (b) ridge width (the circles indicate simulation results, and the dashed line is a guide to the eye).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning-electron microscope picture of a 4 μm wide and 3.7 μm deep waveguide facet.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Log–log representation of P SH versus P FH ; the linear fit with a slope of 1.97 indicates the expected SHG quadratic behavior.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η exp [ ( α FH + α SH / 2 ) L ] sin 2 ( Δ k L / 2 ) + sinh 2 [ ( α FH α SH / 2 ) L / 2 ] ( Δ k L / 2 ) 2 + [ ( α FH α SH / 2 ) L / 2 ] 2 ,

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