Abstract

We demonstrate a chip-scale (<1mm2) sensor, the Planar Fourier Capture Array (PFCA), capable of imaging the far field without any off-chip optics. The PFCA consists of an array of angle-sensitive pixels manufactured in a standard semiconductor process, each of which reports one component of a spatial two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform of the local light field. Thus, the sensor directly captures 2D Fourier transforms of scenes. The effective resolution of our prototype is approximately 400 pixels.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010

L. Paulson, Computer 43, 19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

S. Teng, Y. Tan, and C. Cheng, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2945(2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Koch, J. Oehm, J. Emde, and W. Budde, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 1588 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2001

1836

H. Talbot, Phil. Mag. Series 3 9, 401 (1836).
[CrossRef]

Anhalt, J.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bae, H.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bagnell, D.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Batchelor, B.

B. Batchelor, D. Hill, and H. Hodgson, Automated Visual Inspection (Elsevier Science, 1985).

Bergström, N.

N. Bergström, J. Bohg, and D. Kragic, in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Vision Systems, Vol. 5815 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, 2009), pp. 245–254.

Bittner, R.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bohg, J.

N. Bergström, J. Bohg, and D. Kragic, in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Vision Systems, Vol. 5815 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, 2009), pp. 245–254.

Brown, T.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Budde, W.

C. Koch, J. Oehm, J. Emde, and W. Budde, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 1588 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.

Chipman, J.

T. Lillesand, R. Kiefer, and J. Chipman, Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 5th ed. (Wiley, 2004).

Clark, M.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Darms, M.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Demitrish, D.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dolan, J.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duggins, D.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Emde, J.

C. Koch, J. Oehm, J. Emde, and W. Budde, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 1588 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Escofet, J.

Ferguson, D.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Galatali, T.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, C.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gill, P.

Gill, P. R.

A. Wang, P. R. Gill, and A. Molnar, in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, 2010 (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1706–1709.
[CrossRef]

Gittleman, M.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harbaugh, S.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, M.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hill, D.

B. Batchelor, D. Hill, and H. Hodgson, Automated Visual Inspection (Elsevier Science, 1985).

Hodgson, H.

B. Batchelor, D. Hill, and H. Hodgson, Automated Visual Inspection (Elsevier Science, 1985).

Howard, T. M.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, A.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, R.

T. Lillesand, R. Kiefer, and J. Chipman, Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 5th ed. (Wiley, 2004).

Koch, C.

C. Koch, J. Oehm, J. Emde, and W. Budde, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 1588 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kolski, S.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kragic, D.

N. Bergström, J. Bohg, and D. Kragic, in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Vision Systems, Vol. 5815 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, 2009), pp. 245–254.

Likhachev, M.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lillesand, T.

T. Lillesand, R. Kiefer, and J. Chipman, Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 5th ed. (Wiley, 2004).

Litkouhi, B.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McNaughton, M.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Millán, M.

Miller, N.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Molnar, A.

A. Wang, P. Gill, and A. Molnar, Appl. Opt. 48, 5897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wang, P. R. Gill, and A. Molnar, in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, 2010 (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1706–1709.
[CrossRef]

Nickolaou, J.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oehm, J.

C. Koch, J. Oehm, J. Emde, and W. Budde, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 1588 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paulson, L.

L. Paulson, Computer 43, 19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, K.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pilnick, B.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rajkumar, R.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ralló, M.

Rybski, P.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sadekar, V.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salesky, B.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y.-W.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Snider, J.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Struble, J.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Talbot, H.

H. Talbot, Phil. Mag. Series 3 9, 401 (1836).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.

Taylor, M.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teng, S.

Urmson, C.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

A. Wang, P. Gill, and A. Molnar, Appl. Opt. 48, 5897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wang, P. R. Gill, and A. Molnar, in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, 2010 (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1706–1709.
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, W. R.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiener, N.

N. Wiener, Extrapolation, Interpolation, and Smoothing of Stationary Time Series: with Engineering Applications (MIT Press, 1949).
[PubMed]

Wolkowicki, Z.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ziglar, J.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Computer

L. Paulson, Computer 43, 19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

C. Koch, J. Oehm, J. Emde, and W. Budde, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 1588 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Field Robot.

C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, D. Bagnell, C. Baker, R. Bittner, M. Clark, J. Dolan, D. Duggins, T. Galatali, C. Geyer, M. Gittleman, S. Harbaugh, M. Hebert, T. M. Howard, S. Kolski, A. Kelly, M. Likhachev, M. McNaughton, N. Miller, K. Peterson, B. Pilnick, R. Rajkumar, P. Rybski, B. Salesky, Y.-W. Seo, S. Singh, J. Snider, A. Stentz, W. R. Whittaker, Z. Wolkowicki, J. Ziglar, H. Bae, T. Brown, D. Demitrish, B. Litkouhi, J. Nickolaou, V. Sadekar, W. Zhang, J. Struble, M. Taylor, M. Darms, and D. Ferguson, J. Field Robot. 25, 425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Phil. Mag. Series 3

H. Talbot, Phil. Mag. Series 3 9, 401 (1836).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Wang, P. R. Gill, and A. Molnar, in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, 2010 (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1706–1709.
[CrossRef]

N. Bergström, J. Bohg, and D. Kragic, in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Vision Systems, Vol. 5815 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, 2009), pp. 245–254.

B. Batchelor, D. Hill, and H. Hodgson, Automated Visual Inspection (Elsevier Science, 1985).

T. Lillesand, R. Kiefer, and J. Chipman, Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 5th ed. (Wiley, 2004).

As 23 cm≫570 μm (the PFCA’s size), images presented are in the far-field regime where the light field at each point in the PFCA is essentially identical.

N. Wiener, Extrapolation, Interpolation, and Smoothing of Stationary Time Series: with Engineering Applications (MIT Press, 1949).
[PubMed]

p is constrained by the minimum manufacturable linewidth of the metal, and d must correspond to one of four available inter-layer depths of the five metal layers suitable for making gratings.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Trade-off between imager size and image resolution. The PFCA fills in a gap left in the available resolution–size trade-off between a naked single photodiode and the smallest commercial focusing cameras [14].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angle-sensitive pixels. Incident light interacting with a grating composed of an upper metal layer produces an interference pattern at the depth of the second-layer grating. Light is either passed or blocked depending on the alignment of the interference pattern and the second layer. This alignment, in turn, is sensitive to changes in incident angle; the net effect is that the light passed by an ASP depends sinusoidally on incident angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Decomposition of natural images into Fourier components. (a) All images can be expressed as a sum of 2D Fourier basis functions [e.g., (b)] by taking the sum over all values in (c) the basis-scaled image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Selecting devices for the PFCA. Filled circles indicate manufacturable devices with maximal m for 520 nm light; open circles indicate the suite of devices we manufactured.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Manufactured PFCA. Concentric rings of ASPs with increasingly high sinusoidal periodicity yield a complete Fourier description of the light intensity from the far field. Slowly varying orientation is evident from the enlarged section, where schematics show different metal layers in different colors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PFCA Calibration. Transfer functions of each pixel are found by presenting (a) calibration images on a CRT screen to (b) the array and performing reverse correlation between the observed photocurrent of each sensor and the image presented. (c) The kernels of three ASPs are shown; these resemble Fourier components.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Image reconstructions. Using the basis functions obtained in the calibration phase (Fig. 6), (a) the image presented was (b) reconstructed up to the Nyquist limit of our array. No off-chip optics were used.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R = I 0 ( 1 m cos ( b θ + α ) ) F ( θ ) ( 1 + η ) ,
b = 2 π d p n ,
m     maximal     when     d = a ( p 2 λ ) ; a I .
h = 180 ° 2 Δ b .

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