Abstract

To achieve low loss and complete confinement of light, we propose and study a plasmonic hybrid optical waveguide fabricated on an silicon-on-insulator substrate. Using controlled oxidation and etching processes, a deep submicrometer Si core is fabricated based on UV photolithography patterning. The as-fabricated waveguide demonstrates a very low propagation loss of 1.6dB/mm at 1550nm. The numerical study discloses the hybrid characteristics of the mode. It is shown that the optical power of the waveguiding mode distributes more in the high-index Si-core region, and the metal cover further confines the light beyond the diffraction limit. The hybrid waveguide may be applied in compact, high-density Si photonic integrated circuits.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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2011 (1)

Z. Sun and X. Zuo, Plasmonics 6, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (9)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1995 (1)

M. A. Green and M. Keevers, Prog. Photovolt. 3, 189 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Alam, M. Z.

Almeida, V. R.

Avrutsky, I.

Barrios, C. A.

Bouhelier, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits (Pan Stanford, 2009).

Buchwald, W.

Cardenas, J.

Chan-Park, M. B.

L. Q. Chen, M. B. Chan-Park, Q. Zhang, P. Chen, C. M. Li, and S. Li, Small 5, 1043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Chen, L. Q.

L. Q. Chen, M. B. Chan-Park, Q. Zhang, P. Chen, C. M. Li, and S. Li, Small 5, 1043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

L. Q. Chen, M. B. Chan-Park, Q. Zhang, P. Chen, C. M. Li, and S. Li, Small 5, 1043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, D.

Dereux, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

des Francs, G. C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Desiatov, B.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

Goykhman, I.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green and M. Keevers, Prog. Photovolt. 3, 189 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

He, S.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Ju, J. J.

Keevers, M.

M. A. Green and M. Keevers, Prog. Photovolt. 3, 189 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. T.

Kim, M.

Levy, U.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. M.

L. Q. Chen, M. B. Chan-Park, Q. Zhang, P. Chen, C. M. Li, and S. Li, Small 5, 1043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Z. Sun, X. Zuo, J. Li, and B. Liu, Proc. SPIE 7847, 78470O(2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

L. Q. Chen, M. B. Chan-Park, Q. Zhang, P. Chen, C. M. Li, and S. Li, Small 5, 1043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Liu, B.

Z. Sun, X. Zuo, J. Li, and B. Liu, Proc. SPIE 7847, 78470O(2010).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Meier, J.

Mojahedi, M.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

Park, S. K.

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

Preston, K.

Robinson, J. T.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Shin, S. Y.

Soref, R.

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun and X. Zuo, Plasmonics 6, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, X. Zuo, J. Li, and B. Liu, Proc. SPIE 7847, 78470O(2010).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

Weeber, J. C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Wu, M.

Xu, Q.

Zhang, Q.

L. Q. Chen, M. B. Chan-Park, Q. Zhang, P. Chen, C. M. Li, and S. Li, Small 5, 1043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, X.

Z. Sun and X. Zuo, Plasmonics 6, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, X. Zuo, J. Li, and B. Liu, Proc. SPIE 7847, 78470O(2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Plasmonics (1)

Z. Sun and X. Zuo, Plasmonics 6, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Z. Sun, X. Zuo, J. Li, and B. Liu, Proc. SPIE 7847, 78470O(2010).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. (1)

M. A. Green and M. Keevers, Prog. Photovolt. 3, 189 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

L. Q. Chen, M. B. Chan-Park, Q. Zhang, P. Chen, C. M. Li, and S. Li, Small 5, 1043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits (Pan Stanford, 2009).

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of fabrication processes (a)–(f) and SEM images of the plasmonic optical waveguide (g)–(i). (a) SOI substrate: (b) after ICP etching, (c) after first oxidation, (d) after oxide stripping with BOE, (e) after second oxidation, and (f) after metal coating. (g), (h) Tilted cross-sectional view SEM images of (d) and (e). Note: the Si at the sample end is all oxidized in (h), which makes the waveguide ridge end appear to be larger. (i) Top-view SEM image of (e) when its covering oxide layer is etched in the lower region. The scale bars in (g)–(i) are 1 μm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized power of transmittance measured at different waveguide lengths for polarized and unpolarized incidence light. The red line is a linear fit of the data for unpolarized light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated mode indices and mode profiles. (a) Defined waveguide structure in simulations. (b) Real (solid curves) and imaginary (dashed curves) parts of the mode indices for x polarization (red curves) and y polarization (blue curves). (c)–(h) Distributions of the transverse fields and longitudinal power flow in the waveguide at λ = 1550 nm for x polarization [(c)–(e)] and y polarization [(f)–(h)].

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