Abstract

The inscription of Bragg gratings in chalcogenide (As2Se3) wires with subwavelength diameter is proposed and demonstrated. A modified transverse holographic method employing He–Ne laser light at a wavelength of λw=633nm allows the writing of Bragg grating reflectors in the 1550nm band. The gratings reach an extinction ratio of 40dB in transmission and a negative photo-induced index change of Δn102. The inscription of Bragg gratings in chalcogenide microwires will enable the fabrication of new devices with applications in nonlinear optics and sensing in the near- to mid-IR region of wavelengths.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011

2010

2008

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, T. A. Birks, and S. A. Maier, Opt. Lett. 31, 2556 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2002

2000

H. G. Winful and V. Perlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. G. R. Broderick, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

J. B. R-Malo, E. Marquez, C. Corrales, P. Villares, and R. Jimenez-Garay, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 25, 53 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

S. Larochelle, Y. Hibino, V. Mizrahi, and G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 26, 1459 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983

T. Kaino, K. Jinguji, and S. Nara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 567(1983).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I.

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846(2008).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Andrews, S. R.

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

Birks, T. A.

Bolger, J. A.

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846(2008).
[CrossRef]

Brawley, G. A.

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846(2008).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N. G. R.

N. G. R. Broderick, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T.

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corrales, C.

J. B. R-Malo, E. Marquez, C. Corrales, P. Villares, and R. Jimenez-Garay, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 25, 53 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Neufville, J. P.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1974).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

I. V. Kabakova, D. Grobnic, S. Mihailov, E. C. Mägi, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 19, 5868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeCorby, R.

DeCorby, R. G.

Ding, W.

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photon. 5, 141 (2011).

I. V. Kabakova, D. Grobnic, S. Mihailov, E. C. Mägi, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 19, 5868 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, X.

Feder, K. S.

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

Haugen, C.

Haugen, C. J.

Hibino, Y.

S. Larochelle, Y. Hibino, V. Mizrahi, and G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 26, 1459 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hodelin, J.

Hodzic, V.

Huang, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

N. G. R. Broderick, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez-Garay, R.

J. B. R-Malo, E. Marquez, C. Corrales, P. Villares, and R. Jimenez-Garay, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 25, 53 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jinguji, K.

T. Kaino, K. Jinguji, and S. Nara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 567(1983).
[CrossRef]

Kabakova, I. V.

Kaino, T.

T. Kaino, K. Jinguji, and S. Nara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 567(1983).
[CrossRef]

Kasap, S.

Kasap, S. O.

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laming, R. I.

N. G. R. Broderick, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larochelle, S.

S. Larochelle, Y. Hibino, V. Mizrahi, and G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 26, 1459 (1990).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

Li, Y.

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. R.

Lin, B.

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photon. 5, 141 (2011).

Mägi, E. C.

Maier, S. A.

Marquez, E.

J. B. R-Malo, E. Marquez, C. Corrales, P. Villares, and R. Jimenez-Garay, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 25, 53 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McMullin, J.

McMullin, J. N.

Mihailov, S.

Mizrahi, V.

S. Larochelle, Y. Hibino, V. Mizrahi, and G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 26, 1459 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mok, J. T.

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moss, S. C.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nara, S.

T. Kaino, K. Jinguji, and S. Nara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 567(1983).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Orloff, J.

Ovshinsky, S. R.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, V.

H. G. Winful and V. Perlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

N. G. R. Broderick, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photon. 5, 141 (2011).

R-Malo, J. B.

J. B. R-Malo, E. Marquez, C. Corrales, P. Villares, and R. Jimenez-Garay, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 25, 53 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, T.

Robinson, T. G.

Rochette, M.

Sanghera, J.

Sanghera, J. S.

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846(2008).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Aggarwal and J. S. Sanghera, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 665 (2002).

Shaw, L. B.

Shum, P.

Sipe, J. E.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

S. Larochelle, Y. Hibino, V. Mizrahi, and G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 26, 1459 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ta’eed, V. G.

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846(2008).
[CrossRef]

Taverner, D.

N. G. R. Broderick, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tjin, S. C.

Tonchev, D.

van Popta, A.

Villares, P.

J. B. R-Malo, E. Marquez, C. Corrales, P. Villares, and R. Jimenez-Garay, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 25, 53 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

Wang, G.

Westbrook, P. S.

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winful, H. G.

H. G. Winful and V. Perlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino, K. Jinguji, and S. Nara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 567(1983).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

S. Larochelle, Y. Hibino, V. Mizrahi, and G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 26, 1459 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Hodzic, J. Orloff, and C. C. Davis, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1610 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.

I. D. Aggarwal and J. S. Sanghera, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 665 (2002).

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

J. B. R-Malo, E. Marquez, C. Corrales, P. Villares, and R. Jimenez-Garay, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 25, 53 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photon. 5, 141 (2011).

Nat. Phys.

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. G. R. Broderick, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Winful and V. Perlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic depicting the various parts of a typical hybrid microwire.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental setup for the Bragg grating photoinscription and in situ monitoring of the process. SMF, single-mode fiber; P, prism; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; M1, M2, and M3, reflecting mirrors; BS, beam splitter. (b) Detailed schematic of the prism where the microwire is placed during the grating growth, with the various angles defined in text labeled here.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmissivity of the Bragg grating as a function of time during photoexposure, illustrating the grating growth dynamics. Inset: Evolution of AC and DC refractive index change during the photoexposure is also shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectrum of a 1 mm long Bragg grating (red curve), and a theoretical fit of transmission spectrum with coupled mode theory (blue curve). Also shown is the transmission spectrum of the grating after three weeks of exposure to ambient light. Inset: Grating index profile used for the simulation, assuming the grating to be apodized following a Gaussian profile.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ Bragg = 2 n eff Λ ,
Λ = λ w 2 sin φ ,
n p sin ( φ 45 ° ) = sin ( θ ) .
Δ n DC ( t ) = n 0 λ B , current ( t ) λ B , initial λ B , initial ,
Δ n AC ( t ) = n 0 Δ λ B , current ( t ) λ B , current ( t ) ,

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