Abstract

Compact microspheres with high-quality (Q) whispering gallery modes are required for many applications involving liquid immersion, such as sensing nanoparticles and studying resonant radiative pressure effects. We show that high-index (1.9 and 2.1) barium titanate glass (BTG) microspheres are perfect candidates for these applications due to their high-Q (104 in the 11001600nm range) resonances evanescently excited in spheres with diameters of 415μm. By reattaching the spheres at different positions along a tapered optical fiber, we show that the coupling constant exponentially increases with thinner fiber diameters. We demonstrate the close to critical coupling regime with intrinsic Q=3×104 for water immersed 14μm BTG spheres.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2011

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Kim, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Xifré-Pérez, J. D. Domenech, R. Fenollosa, P. Muñoz, J. Capmany, and F. Meseguer, Opt. Express 19, 3185 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

S. Yang and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Lett. 34, 2057 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Sumetsky, Opt. Express 15, 17449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lutti, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992

Armani, D. K.

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Armany, A. M.

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ashili, S. P.

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Astratov, V. N.

S. Yang and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Lett. 34, 2057 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bandy, D. K.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S. N.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borri, P.

J. Lutti, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

Chan, C. T.

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dale, E.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Domenech, J. D.

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, G.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fenollosa, R.

Franchak, J. P.

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

Grillet, C.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Humphrey, M. J.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

W. Kim, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laine, J. P.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lam, C. C.

Langbein, W.

J. Lutti, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leung, P. T.

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z. F.

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lutti, J.

J. Lutti, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Magi, E. C.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meseguer, F.

Min, B.

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, P.

Murugan, G. S.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J.

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nitkowski, A.

Ozdemir, S. K.

W. Kim, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenberger, A. T.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, Y.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumetsky, M.

Teraoka, I.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J. J.

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xifré-Pérez, E.

Yang, L.

W. Kim, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Young, K.

Zhu, J.

W. Kim, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Kim, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lutti, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

MO-Sci Corp., glass technology experts; http://www.mo-sci.com.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sketch of the sample cell. (b) Transmission of the d 2.5 μm fiber in contact with a BTG sphere ( D 14 μm , N s = 1.9 ) in water. Bottom diagram marks calculated resonances [16]. Left inset shows enlarged portion of the spectrum. Right inset shows example of a n = 1 WGM measured with tunable laser; the measurement error is of the order of the symbol size; solid curve is a fit with Eq. (1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Resonances of BTG spheres ( D 11.2 μm , N s = 2.1 ) attached at different points along the taper in water, as shown by pictures to the right. For clarity, spectra are shifted by 1 dB with respect to each other. (b) Examples of fitting with Eq. (1) at different d as shown in the figure. (c) Dependence of κ on d and its exponential fit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Q factors of WGMs in the investigated spheres in air and water, measured at 1150 nm ( n = 1 ) and 1600 nm ( n = 2 ).

Equations (1)

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P = e γ × ( β β 0 ) 2 + ( γ 2 S + α κ ) 2 ( β β 0 ) 2 + ( γ 2 S + α + κ ) 2 .

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