Abstract

Compact microspheres with high-quality (Q) whispering gallery modes are required for many applications involving liquid immersion, such as sensing nanoparticles and studying resonant radiative pressure effects. We show that high-index (1.9 and 2.1) barium titanate glass (BTG) microspheres are perfect candidates for these applications due to their high-Q (104 in the 11001600nm range) resonances evanescently excited in spheres with diameters of 415μm. By reattaching the spheres at different positions along a tapered optical fiber, we show that the coupling constant exponentially increases with thinner fiber diameters. We demonstrate the close to critical coupling regime with intrinsic Q=3×104 for water immersed 14μm BTG spheres.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Kim, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Ng and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Kim, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Xifré-Pérez, J. D. Domenech, R. Fenollosa, P. Muñoz, J. Capmany, and F. Meseguer, Opt. Express 19, 3185 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

S. Yang and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Lett. 34, 2057 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. Sumetsky, Opt. Express 15, 17449 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lutti, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Armani, D. K.

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Armany, A. M.

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ashili, S. P.

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Astratov, V. N.

S. Yang and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Lett. 34, 2057 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bandy, D. K.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S. N.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borri, P.

J. Lutti, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

Chan, C. T.

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dale, E.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Domenech, J. D.

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, G.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fenollosa, R.

Franchak, J. P.

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

Grillet, C.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Humphrey, M. J.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

W. Kim, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laine, J. P.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lam, C. C.

Langbein, W.

J. Lutti, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leung, P. T.

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z. F.

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lutti, J.

J. Lutti, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Magi, E. C.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meseguer, F.

Min, B.

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, P.

Murugan, G. S.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J.

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nitkowski, A.

Ozdemir, S. K.

W. Kim, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenberger, A. T.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, Y.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumetsky, M.

Teraoka, I.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J. J.

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xifré-Pérez, E.

Yang, L.

W. Kim, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Young, K.

Zhu, J.

W. Kim, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, G. S. Murugan, T. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, W. Loh, G. Brambilla, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Kim, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lutti, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armany, D. K. Armani, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and S. M. Spillane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

MO-Sci Corp., glass technology experts; http://www.mo-sci.com.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sketch of the sample cell. (b) Transmission of the d 2.5 μm fiber in contact with a BTG sphere ( D 14 μm , N s = 1.9 ) in water. Bottom diagram marks calculated resonances [16]. Left inset shows enlarged portion of the spectrum. Right inset shows example of a n = 1 WGM measured with tunable laser; the measurement error is of the order of the symbol size; solid curve is a fit with Eq. (1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Resonances of BTG spheres ( D 11.2 μm , N s = 2.1 ) attached at different points along the taper in water, as shown by pictures to the right. For clarity, spectra are shifted by 1 dB with respect to each other. (b) Examples of fitting with Eq. (1) at different d as shown in the figure. (c) Dependence of κ on d and its exponential fit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Q factors of WGMs in the investigated spheres in air and water, measured at 1150 nm ( n = 1 ) and 1600 nm ( n = 2 ).

Equations (1)

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P = e γ × ( β β 0 ) 2 + ( γ 2 S + α κ ) 2 ( β β 0 ) 2 + ( γ 2 S + α + κ ) 2 .

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