Abstract

Organic materials with a high second-order optical nonlinearity have an important application for the next generation of computing, telecommunications, and other industries. Because of a high electro-optic coefficient and low dielectric constant, N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (BNA) single crystals have been grown and their optical properties have been extensively studied. In this Letter, a poled BNA thin film material was prepared through simultaneous vacuum evaporation and laser-assisted electrical poling. The linear electro-optic coefficients of BNA were measured by a Young’s two-slit interference electro-optic measurement method. The dependence of the resulting electro-optic properties on optical power was explored. Enhancement induced by laser illumination was demonstrated. The BNA thin film can exhibit an r33 value comparable to that of BNA single crystals.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, Chem. Rev. 110, 25 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6754 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr Jr., I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. Jen, and R. Overney, Chem. Mater. 23, 430 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, Chem. Rev. 110, 25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahaski, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Kuroyanagi, M. Fujiwara, H. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, and Y. Tsuchiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4068(2006).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aoshima, S.

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahaski, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuroyanagi, M. Fujiwara, H. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, and Y. Tsuchiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4068(2006).
[CrossRef]

Bale, D. H.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, Chem. Rev. 110, 25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benight, S. J.

L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr Jr., I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. Jen, and R. Overney, Chem. Mater. 23, 430 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cogdell, R. J.

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahaski, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr Jr., I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. Jen, and R. Overney, Chem. Mater. 23, 430 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, Chem. Rev. 110, 25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eichinger, B. E.

L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr Jr., I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. Jen, and R. Overney, Chem. Mater. 23, 430 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, H.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

K. Miyamoto, H. Minamide, M. Fujiwara, H. Hashimoto, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 33, 252 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahaski, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuroyanagi, M. Fujiwara, H. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, and Y. Tsuchiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4068(2006).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S.

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, H.

K. Miyamoto, H. Minamide, M. Fujiwara, H. Hashimoto, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 33, 252 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahaski, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuroyanagi, M. Fujiwara, H. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, and Y. Tsuchiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4068(2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

Jen, A.

L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr Jr., I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. Jen, and R. Overney, Chem. Mater. 23, 430 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. E.

L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr Jr., I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. Jen, and R. Overney, Chem. Mater. 23, 430 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kalluri, S.

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knorr, D. B.

L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr Jr., I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. Jen, and R. Overney, Chem. Mater. 23, 430 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kosilkin, I.

L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr Jr., I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. Jen, and R. Overney, Chem. Mater. 23, 430 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuroyanagi, K.

K. Kuroyanagi, M. Fujiwara, H. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, and Y. Tsuchiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4068(2006).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, M.

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahaski, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsushima, R.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minamide, H.

Miyamoto, K.

Morioka, M.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okada, Y.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Overney, R.

L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr Jr., I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. Jen, and R. Overney, Chem. Mater. 23, 430 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. H.

L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr Jr., I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. Jen, and R. Overney, Chem. Mater. 23, 430 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sugisaki, M.

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahaski, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P. A.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, Chem. Rev. 110, 25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

K. Kuroyanagi, M. Fujiwara, H. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, and Y. Tsuchiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4068(2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahaski, H.

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahaski, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, Y.

K. Kuroyanagi, M. Fujiwara, H. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, and Y. Tsuchiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4068(2006).
[CrossRef]

Ziari, M.

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr Jr., I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. Jen, and R. Overney, Chem. Mater. 23, 430 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, Chem. Rev. 110, 25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuroyanagi, M. Fujiwara, H. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, and Y. Tsuchiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4068(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahaski, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the simultaneous EO material deposition and laser-assisted electrical poling of a two- slit sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of a laser-assisted poled BNA thin film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The relationship between assisted laser power and EO coefficient measured at the wavelength of 1550 nm . (a)  r 33 component; (b) ratio of r 33 / r 13 . The solid lines are for visual guidance only.

Equations (2)

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r 33 = N β z z z ( ω ) cos 3 θ g ( ω )
r 13 = N β z z z ( ω ) cos θ sin 2 θ g ( ω ) ,

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