Abstract

Dual-mirror aplanats provide efficient, ultracompact, high-irradiance solar concentration and were recently developed for concentrator photovoltaics. However, inherent limitations place the focus inside the optic. This mandates a terminal dielectric concentrator to extract concentrated sunlight to the solar cell outside the optic, and an optical bond to the cell. Can a modified design strategy site the focus outside the optic (eliminating the need for an extractor and optical bond) without compromising concentrator compactness, low shading losses, or pragmatic manufacturability? We show how judiciously nested dual-mirror aplanats can satisfy all these objectives, with raytrace simulations confirming performance tantamount to the best conventional aplanats.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Gordon and D. Feuermann, Appl. Opt. 44, 2327(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Winston and J. M. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 30, 2617 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. M. Gordon, in Concentrator Photovoltaics, A.Luque and V.M.Andreev, eds. (Springer, 2007), pp. 113–132.
  4. J. M. Gordon, D. Feuermann, and P. Young, Opt. Lett. 33, 1114 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Ostroumov, J. M. Gordon, and D. Feuermann, Appl. Opt. 48, 4926 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. M. Gordon, Opt. Express 18, A41 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Nishikawa, E. Green, and S. Cowley, in Proceedings of ICSC5: 5th International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen(National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2008), pp. 2–6.
  8. S. Horne, SolFocus Inc., 510 Logue Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (personal communication and company technical reports, 2008).
  9. R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, with contributions from N. Shatz and J. Bortz, Nonimaging Optics(Elsevier, 2005).
  10. A. Goldstein and J. M. Gordon, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 624 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Spectrolab Inc., “Concentrator Solar Cell,” Technical prospectus CDO-100-C3MJ (Spectrolab Inc., 2009).

2011

A. Goldstein and J. M. Gordon, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 624 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

2005

Benítez, P.

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, with contributions from N. Shatz and J. Bortz, Nonimaging Optics(Elsevier, 2005).

Bortz, J.

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, with contributions from N. Shatz and J. Bortz, Nonimaging Optics(Elsevier, 2005).

Cowley, S.

W. Nishikawa, E. Green, and S. Cowley, in Proceedings of ICSC5: 5th International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen(National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2008), pp. 2–6.

Feuermann, D.

Goldstein, A.

A. Goldstein and J. M. Gordon, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 624 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. M.

Green, E.

W. Nishikawa, E. Green, and S. Cowley, in Proceedings of ICSC5: 5th International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen(National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2008), pp. 2–6.

Horne, S.

S. Horne, SolFocus Inc., 510 Logue Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (personal communication and company technical reports, 2008).

Miñano, J. C.

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, with contributions from N. Shatz and J. Bortz, Nonimaging Optics(Elsevier, 2005).

Nishikawa, W.

W. Nishikawa, E. Green, and S. Cowley, in Proceedings of ICSC5: 5th International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen(National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2008), pp. 2–6.

Ostroumov, N.

Shatz, N.

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, with contributions from N. Shatz and J. Bortz, Nonimaging Optics(Elsevier, 2005).

Winston, R.

R. Winston and J. M. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 30, 2617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, with contributions from N. Shatz and J. Bortz, Nonimaging Optics(Elsevier, 2005).

Young, P.

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

A. Goldstein and J. M. Gordon, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 624 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

Spectrolab Inc., “Concentrator Solar Cell,” Technical prospectus CDO-100-C3MJ (Spectrolab Inc., 2009).

J. M. Gordon, in Concentrator Photovoltaics, A.Luque and V.M.Andreev, eds. (Springer, 2007), pp. 113–132.

W. Nishikawa, E. Green, and S. Cowley, in Proceedings of ICSC5: 5th International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen(National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2008), pp. 2–6.

S. Horne, SolFocus Inc., 510 Logue Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (personal communication and company technical reports, 2008).

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, with contributions from N. Shatz and J. Bortz, Nonimaging Optics(Elsevier, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Example of an ultracompact ( AR = 0.259 ), dual-mirror aplanat of high NA out = 0.9 (for high concentration) and low shading of the primary by the secondary mirror (3.5%), but requiring the focus inside the optic. One on-axis ray is traced for clarity. (b) Illustration of a SolFocus dual-mirror CPV aplanat, with C g = 625 , shading = 3.5 % , and AR = 0.25 (qualitatively similar to Fig. 1a but designed for lower NA out = 0.5 , which is still not low enough to obviate the need for the focus to reside inside the optic [3, 7, 8]). A tapered dielectric element extracts the light and is optically bonded to a solar cell (mounted on a passive heat sink outside the optic—not shown).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Cross section of a double-nested aplanat. The two distinct aplanats are characterized by { s out = 0.25 , K out = 0.1035 } , { s in = 0.125 , K in = 0.27 } , and NA in = 0.4 . NA out = 0.8 is the highest value (and hence the highest concentration) commensurate with shading losses below 4% while respecting ultracompactness and an external focus. Two rays are traced for clarity. (b) Optical tolerance plot for the axisymmetric concentrator with C g = 711 and 1600. Here and in Fig. 3b, the dashed vertical lines indicate the respective theoretical limits on tolerance angle, meaning the off-axis half-angle up to which 100% of the on-axis efficiency can be retained [Eq. (2)]. The two red star symbols indicate raytrace results for the respective optical tolerances actually realized for 90% of on-axis collection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Triple-nested aplanat. The three distinct aplanats are characterized by { s out = 0.315 , K out = 0.0625 } , { s mid = 0.143 , K mid = 0.2 } , and { s in = 0.0705 , K in = 0.3 } , with NA in = 0.3 , NA mid = 0.573 , and NA out = 0.9 (exit N A values are indicated by the arrowed arcs). (b) Optical tolerance plots for C g = 900 and 2025. Indicators are the same as in Fig. 2b.

Equations (2)

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C max = ( sin ( θ out ) sin ( θ sun ) ) 2 = ( NA out NA sun ) 2 ,
θ off -axis NA out C g θ sun .

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