Abstract

We demonstrate third-harmonic generation (THG) in a dispersion-engineered slow-light photonic crystal waveguide fabricated in AMTIR-1 chalcogenide glass. Owing to the relatively low loss and low dispersion in the slow- light (c/30) regime, combined with the high nonlinear figure of merit of the material (2), we obtain a rela tively large conversion efficiency (1.4×108/W2), which is 30× higher than in comparable silicon waveguides, and observe a uniform visible light pattern along the waveguide. These results widen the number of applications underpinned by THG in slow-light platforms, such as the direct observation of the spatial evolution of the propagating mode.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (8)

2009 (8)

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

L. O’Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, Electron. Lett. 42, 1454(2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

Asakawa, K.

Baba, T.

Baron, A.

Beggs, D. M.

Bulla, D.

Bulla, D. A. P.

Choi, D. Y.

Chong, H.

L. O’Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, Electron. Lett. 42, 1454(2006).
[CrossRef]

Colman, P.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrie, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, Nat. Photonics 4, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Combrie, S.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrie, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, Nat. Photonics 4, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Combrié, S.

Corcoran, B.

De la Rue, R. M.

L. O’Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, Electron. Lett. 42, 1454(2006).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrie, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, Nat. Photonics 4, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Baron, A. Ryasnyanskiy, N. Dubreuil, P. Delaye, Q. Vy Tran, S. Combrié, A. de Rossi, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, Opt. Express 17, 552 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delaye, P.

Dubreuil, N.

Ebnali-Heidari, M.

Eggleton, B. J.

Freeman, D.

Frey, R.

Fuflyigin, V. N.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gai, X.

Galli, M.

Gerace, D.

Gopinath, J. T.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Guizzetti, G.

Hamachi, Y.

Hatami, F.

Hugonin, J. P.

Husko, C.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrie, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, Nat. Photonics 4, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, N.

Inoue, K.

Ippen, E. P.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

King, W. A.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

M. Spurny, L. O’Faolain, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 19, 1991 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, K. Welna, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, G. Guizzetti, and L. C. Andreani, Opt. Express 18, 26613(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 18, 6831 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Opt. Express 18, 7770 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, J. Li, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 18, 22915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. O’Faolain, S. A. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Spasenović, L. Kuipers, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, S. Mazoyer, J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 18, 27627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 3, 206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 17, 2944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. O’Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, Electron. Lett. 42, 1454(2006).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, S.

Kuipers, L.

Lalanne, P.

Lee, M. W.

Li, J.

Lin, Z. L.

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Magi, E.

Mägi, E.

Masselink, W. T.

Mazoyer, S.

McIntyre, D.

L. O’Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, Electron. Lett. 42, 1454(2006).
[CrossRef]

Melloni, A.

Monat, C.

Morichetti, F.

Moss, D. J.

C. Monat, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 18, 6831 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Opt. Express 18, 7770 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 3, 206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

Oda, H.

Pelusi, M.

Pelusi, M. D.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C. G.

Pudo, D.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Rivoire, K.

Roosen, G.

Ryasnyanskiy, A.

Sagnes, I.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrie, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, Nat. Photonics 4, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, S. A.

Shurgalin, M.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L. C.

Soljacic, M.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spasenovic, M.

Spurny, M.

Suzuki, K.

Thoms, S.

L. O’Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, Electron. Lett. 42, 1454(2006).
[CrossRef]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

Tran, Q. V.

S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

Vy Tran, Q.

Welna, K.

White, T. P.

Wong, C. W.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrie, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, Nat. Photonics 4, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.

L. O’Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, Electron. Lett. 42, 1454(2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. O’Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, Electron. Lett. 42, 1454(2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (4)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 3, 206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, Nat. Photonics 2, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrie, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, Nat. Photonics 4, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (13)

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. C. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 16, 13800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, Y. Hamachi, and T. Baba, Opt. Express 17, 22393 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Spurny, L. O’Faolain, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 19, 1991 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 18, 6831 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rivoire, Z. L. Lin, F. Hatami, W. T. Masselink, and J. Vuckovic, Opt. Express 17, 22609 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, K. Welna, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, G. Guizzetti, and L. C. Andreani, Opt. Express 18, 26613(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 17, 2944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baron, A. Ryasnyanskiy, N. Dubreuil, P. Delaye, Q. Vy Tran, S. Combrié, A. de Rossi, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, Opt. Express 17, 552 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, H. Oda, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Opt. Express 17, 7206 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, J. Li, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 18, 22915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, Opt. Express 18, 7770 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. Magi, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 18, 26695 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. O’Faolain, S. A. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Spasenović, L. Kuipers, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, S. Mazoyer, J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 18, 27627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission and measured group index dispersion of the waveguide in the NIR. Inset: scanning electron microscope picture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Left) NIR light transmission versus pump power at 1559 nm . (Right) TH light average power versus pump power at 1559 nm (stars) along with a cubic fit (red curve). Inset: visible image collected from the top of the PhC waveguide with a CCD camera (NIR signal launched left to right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) TH visible light images at various pump wavelengths, as indicated. The dotted rectangle highlights the boundary of the PhC, with the pump launched from left to right. (b) Effective length versus pump wavelength, inferred from the NIR low power pulse transmission as in Fig. 2 (circles) and from the decay length of the TH profile (stars).

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