Abstract

A dual-Vivaldi nanoantenna is proposed to demonstrate the possibility of wideband operation at IR frequencies. The antenna geometry design is guided by the material properties of metals at IR frequencies. According to our numerical results, this nanoantenna has both high radiation efficiency and good impedance-matching properties over a wide frequency band (more than 122%) in the IR frequency band. The design is based on the well-known Vivaldi antenna placed on quartz substrate but operating as a pair instead of a single element. Such a pair of Vivaldi antennas oriented in opposite directions produces the main lobe in the broadside direction (normal to the axes of the antennas) rather than the usual peak gain along the axis (end fire) of a single Vivaldi antenna. The dual-Vivaldi nanoantenna is easy to fabricate in a conventional electron-beam lithography process, and it provides a large number of degrees of freedom, facilitating design for ultra-wideband operation.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 78, 195111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmadi, A.

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 78, 195111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boag, A.

I. Friedler, Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, “Coherent directional emission of IR radiation from metallic nano-antenna arrays,” Opt. Express , submitted for publication.
[PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Derkacs, D.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dorfmüller, J.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dregely, D.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisler, H. J.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 78, 195111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedler, I.

I. Friedler, Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, “Coherent directional emission of IR radiation from metallic nano-antenna arrays,” Opt. Express , submitted for publication.
[PubMed]

Gibson, P. J.

P. J. Gibson, in Proceedings of the 9th European Microwave Conference, (IEEE, 1979), pp. 101–105.
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakanson, U.

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanein, Y.

I. Friedler, Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, “Coherent directional emission of IR radiation from metallic nano-antenna arrays,” Opt. Express , submitted for publication.
[PubMed]

Hartschuh, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iluz, Z.

I. Friedler, Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, “Coherent directional emission of IR radiation from metallic nano-antenna arrays,” Opt. Express , submitted for publication.
[PubMed]

Kern, K.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, S.

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, S. H.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mar, W.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matheu, P.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mosallaei, H.

Muhlschlegel, P.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palik, E.

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985), Vol.  1.

Pohl, D. W.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pozar, D. M.

D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2005).

Quate, C. F.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rogobete, L.

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheuer, J.

I. Friedler, Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, “Coherent directional emission of IR radiation from metallic nano-antenna arrays,” Opt. Express , submitted for publication.
[PubMed]

Sundaramurthy, A.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taubert, R.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogelgesang, R.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yifat, Y.

I. Friedler, Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, “Coherent directional emission of IR radiation from metallic nano-antenna arrays,” Opt. Express , submitted for publication.
[PubMed]

Yu, E. T.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

I. Friedler, Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, “Coherent directional emission of IR radiation from metallic nano-antenna arrays,” Opt. Express , submitted for publication.
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 78, 195111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2005).

CST Microwave Studio, version 2010, www.CST.com.

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985), Vol.  1.

P. J. Gibson, in Proceedings of the 9th European Microwave Conference, (IEEE, 1979), pp. 101–105.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Skin depth of gold as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dual-Vivaldi nanoantenna top view geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Electric field distribution at 1.58 μm and y = 0 ; (b) antenna far-field directivity pattern in the y x (vertical) and y z (horizontal) planes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dual-Vivaldi input resistance and reactance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dual-Vivaldi (a) radiation efficiency and (b) peak and broadside realized gain.

Equations (3)

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x = C 1 exp ( R z ) + C 2 ,
C 1 = x end x start exp ( R z end ) + exp ( R z start ) ,
C 2 = x start exp ( R z end ) x end exp ( R z start ) exp ( R z end ) + exp ( R z start ) ,

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