Abstract

A simple fiber sensor for magnetic field measurement based on nanoparticle Fe3O4 magnetic fluid and relative Fresnel reflection is presented. The sensor includes only a light source, three couplers, two photodetectors, and two fiber sensing ends. Magnetic fields at different concentrations of magnetic fluid are measured. Magnetic fluid with high concentration can be used for the measurement of weak magnetic fields, while low concentration fluid is used for the measurement of strong magnetic fields. The temperature dependence of the sensor is also addressed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

H. Su and X. G. Huang, Sens. Actuators B 126, 579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

O. Kamada, T. Nakaya, and S. Higuchi, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 119, 345 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin and S. C. Huang, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 121, 333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, Y. P. Chen, W. J. Liao, L. J. Chen, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, S. Y. Yang, W. S. Tse, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

O. Baltag and D. Costandache, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 81, 336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. Cotae and O. Baltag, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Omura, K. Yamashita, T. Sawada, and M. Ohaba, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

N. C. Popa and I. Potencz, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 59, 307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baltag, O.

O. Baltag and D. Costandache, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 81, 336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Cotae and O. Baltag, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, J. J.

Chen, L. J.

S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, Y. P. Chen, W. J. Liao, L. J. Chen, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, Y. P. Chen, W. J. Liao, L. J. Chen, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, S. Y. Yang, W. S. Tse, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931(2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. P.

S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, Y. P. Chen, W. J. Liao, L. J. Chen, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, Y. P.

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Costandache, D.

O. Baltag and D. Costandache, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 81, 336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cotae, C.

C. Cotae and O. Baltag, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

Dai, J. X.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, S.

O. Kamada, T. Nakaya, and S. Higuchi, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 119, 345 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

Y. F. Chen, S. Y. Yang, W. S. Tse, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-Y.

H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931(2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H. E.

H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, S. Y. Yang, W. S. Tse, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931(2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, T.

Huang, S. C.

H. Lin and S. C. Huang, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 121, 333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. G.

H. Su and X. G. Huang, Sens. Actuators B 126, 579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeang, B. Y.

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

Kamada, O.

O. Kamada, T. Nakaya, and S. Higuchi, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 119, 345 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Li, X. B.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, W. J.

S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, Y. P. Chen, W. J. Liao, L. J. Chen, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

H. Lin and S. C. Huang, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 121, 333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. L.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lv, Z. W.

Nakaya, T.

O. Kamada, T. Nakaya, and S. Higuchi, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 119, 345 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohaba, M.

N. Omura, K. Yamashita, T. Sawada, and M. Ohaba, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Omura, N.

N. Omura, K. Yamashita, T. Sawada, and M. Ohaba, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ou, F.

Popa, N. C.

N. C. Popa and I. Potencz, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 59, 307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Potencz, I.

N. C. Popa and I. Potencz, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 59, 307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pu, S. L.

S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, Y. P. Chen, W. J. Liao, L. J. Chen, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, T.

N. Omura, K. Yamashita, T. Sawada, and M. Ohaba, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shi, C.

Su, H.

H. Su and X. G. Huang, Sens. Actuators B 126, 579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. L.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tse, W. S.

Y. F. Chen, S. Y. Yang, W. S. Tse, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931(2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G.

Xia, Y. X.

S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, Y. P. Chen, W. J. Liao, L. J. Chen, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

N. Omura, K. Yamashita, T. Sawada, and M. Ohaba, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. C.

Y. F. Chen, S. Y. Yang, W. S. Tse, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931(2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

Yang, M. H.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, S. Y. Yang, W. S. Tse, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931(2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, C.

Zhou, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931(2002).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, S. Y. Yang, W. S. Tse, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, Y. P. Chen, W. J. Liao, L. J. Chen, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (2)

N. Omura, K. Yamashita, T. Sawada, and M. Ohaba, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Cotae and O. Baltag, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A, Phys. (4)

O. Baltag and D. Costandache, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 81, 336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Popa and I. Potencz, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 59, 307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Kamada, T. Nakaya, and S. Higuchi, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 119, 345 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin and S. C. Huang, Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 121, 333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

H. Su and X. G. Huang, Sens. Actuators B 126, 579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic experiment arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index n MF as a function of concentration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index versus magnetic field intensity at two different C of magnetic fluid. Langevin functions 1 and 2 are obtained from Eq. (1). At Langevin function 1, where H c , n = 80 Oe , n b = 1.3411 , n s = 1.3901 , and α = 0.143 . At Langevin function 2, where H c , n = 400 Oe , n b = 1.3393 , n s = 1.3757 , and α = 0.18 . The refractive index versus magnetic field in upward and downward rounds at C = 25 % is shown in the inset.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature-dependent refractive index of the magnetic fluid at C = 25 % .

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n MF = [ n s n b ] [ coth ( α H H c , n T ) T α ( H H c , n ) ] + n b , for     H > H c , n ,
I 1 = k 1 k 1 k 3 I 0 ( n f n MF ) 2 + k MF 2 ( n f + n MF ) 2 + k MF 2 .
I 2 = k 2 k 2 k 3 I 0 ( n f n 0 n f + n 0 ) 2 .
R = I 1 / I 2 = K ( n f n MF ) 2 + k MF 2 ( n f + n MF ) 2 + k MF 2 · ( n f + n 0 n f n 0 ) 2 ,
n MF = n f · ( 1 + η 1 η ) 4 η ( 1 η ) 2 · n f 2 k MF 2 ,

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