Abstract

Ionization of molecules by strong laser fields launches an electron wave packet. This electron wave packet, which can be driven back by the field to recollide with the parent ion, has been widely explored to probe the ultrafast nuclear dynamics. We numerically demonstrate the precise control of the temporal characteristic of the recolliding electron wave packet (REWP) by orthogonally polarized two-color fields. Through changing the relative phase of the two fields, the revisit time of REWP can be manipulated with a resolution of less than 200attos, thus significantly improving the resolution of the well known molecular clock. This provides an efficient method for real-time observation of the ultrafast molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Lein, J. Phys. B 40, R135 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 466, 604 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

I. V. Litvinyuk, A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, D. Ray, A. T. Hasan, J.-C. Kieffer, and D. M. Villeneuve, New J. Phys. 10, 083011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. Spanner and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, J. Phys. B 40, R135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, J. Phys. B 38, 487 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kitzler and M. Lezius, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233203 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Nature 421, 826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alnaser, A. S.

I. V. Litvinyuk, A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, D. Ray, A. T. Hasan, J.-C. Kieffer, and D. M. Villeneuve, New J. Phys. 10, 083011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertrand, J. B.

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 466, 604 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breen, L.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brumer, P.

M. Spanner and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cocke, C. L.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comtois, D.

I. V. Litvinyuk, A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, D. Ray, A. T. Hasan, J.-C. Kieffer, and D. M. Villeneuve, New J. Phys. 10, 083011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 466, 604 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Nature 421, 826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jesus, V. L. B.

A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, J. Phys. B 38, 487 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dimopoulou, C.

A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, J. Phys. B 38, 487 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

H. Niikura, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ergler, T.

A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, J. Phys. B 38, 487 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feuerstein, B.

A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, J. Phys. B 38, 487 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haan, S. L.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, A. T.

I. V. Litvinyuk, A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, D. Ray, A. T. Hasan, J.-C. Kieffer, and D. M. Villeneuve, New J. Phys. 10, 083011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hasbani, R.

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Nature 421, 826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Nature 421, 826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karim, A.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kartashov, D. V.

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 466, 604 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J.-C.

I. V. Litvinyuk, A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, D. Ray, A. T. Hasan, J.-C. Kieffer, and D. M. Villeneuve, New J. Phys. 10, 083011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kitzler, M.

M. Kitzler and M. Lezius, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Légaré, F.

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Nature 421, 826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lein, M.

M. Lein, J. Phys. B 40, R135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lezius, M.

M. Kitzler and M. Lezius, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, Q.

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233203 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

I. V. Litvinyuk, A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, D. Ray, A. T. Hasan, J.-C. Kieffer, and D. M. Villeneuve, New J. Phys. 10, 083011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maharjan, C. M.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moshammer, R.

A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, J. Phys. B 38, 487 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niikura, H.

H. Niikura, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Nature 421, 826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osipov, T.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranitovic, P.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ray, D.

I. V. Litvinyuk, A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, D. Ray, A. T. Hasan, J.-C. Kieffer, and D. M. Villeneuve, New J. Phys. 10, 083011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rudenko, A.

A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, J. Phys. B 38, 487 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schröter, C. D.

A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, J. Phys. B 38, 487 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shan, B.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spanner, M.

M. Spanner and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. M.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233203 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, J. Phys. B 38, 487 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, B.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

H. Niikura, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 466, 604 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Litvinyuk, A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, D. Ray, A. T. Hasan, J.-C. Kieffer, and D. M. Villeneuve, New J. Phys. 10, 083011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Nature 421, 826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, S.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wörner, H. J.

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 466, 604 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z. X.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233203 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zrost, K.

A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, J. Phys. B 38, 487 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (2)

M. Lein, J. Phys. B 40, R135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, J. Phys. B 38, 487 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 466, 604 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Nature 421, 826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

I. V. Litvinyuk, A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, D. Ray, A. T. Hasan, J.-C. Kieffer, and D. M. Villeneuve, New J. Phys. 10, 083011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. Spanner and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler and M. Lezius, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233203 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time structure of REWP as a function of the relative phase ϕ. In the left column the orthogonal two-color field is consisted of an 800 and a 400 nm field, and the laser intensities of both pulses are 1.0 × 10 14 W / cm 2 . In the right column, it is consisted of a 1600 and an 800 nm field, and the laser intensities are 0.5 × 10 14 W / cm 2 . In both cases, only the group of trajectories that return to the molecular ion near 3.5 T 1 are collected, where T 1 is the laser period of the x-component field. The dashed lines are added to guide the eye.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketch of the electron dynamics. The first ionization occurs just after the field peak at 3.0 T 1 and returns back around or after the peak at 3.5 T 1 . The solid black curve denotes the x-component electric field and the dashed curves represent the amplitudes of the synthetical fields ( E x 2 + E y 2 ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Structure of the time delay between recollision and the first ionization. The laser parameters are the same as those in Fig. 1. The dashed lines are added to guide the eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time delay as a function of the relative phase ϕ. Here the time is obtained by calculating the mean value of the delay time for the first recollision.

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