Abstract

A simple method to extract the optical bandgap of Si nanowire (SiNW) arrays that utilizes the reflection spectra of freestanding SiNW arrays is presented in this Letter. At a fixed nanowire diameter, three different wire lengths reproducibly formed a cross point in their reflectance curve plots. The cross point wavelength corresponded to the optical bandgap, as verified by the classical Tauc’s model. The optical bandgap of the SiNW arrays (112nm in average diameter) was measured to be 1.19eV, which is larger than the 1.08eV bandgap of bulk Si. Further decreasing the wire diameter to 68nm caused an increase of the bandgap to 1.24eV, which is closer to the optimal bandgap (1.40eV) required to achieve the highest conversion efficiency in single-junction photovoltaic devices. Our method suggests that the multijunction tandem structure can be realized via control of the diameter of SiNW arrays.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 239 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-Y. Jung, Z. Guo, S.-W. Jee, H.-D. Um, K.-T. Park, and J.-H. Lee, Opt. Express 18, A286 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Hu, and G. Chen, Nano Lett. 7, 3249 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Bao, and X. Ruan, Opt. Lett. 35, 3378 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Garnett, and P. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, Nano Lett. 10, 2012 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. R. A. Street. W. S. Wong, and C. Paulson, Nano Lett. 9, 3494(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. A. Sivakov, F. Voigt, A. Berger, G. Bauer, and S. H. Christiansen, Phys. Rev. B 82, 125446 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Jung, Z. Guo, S.-W. Jee, H.-D. Um, K.-T. Park, and J.-H. Lee, Opt. Express 18, A286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bao, and X. Ruan, Opt. Lett. 35, 3378 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Garnett, and P. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, Nano Lett. 10, 2012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Sivakov, F. Voigt, A. Berger, G. Bauer, and S. H. Christiansen, Phys. Rev. B 82, 125446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. A. Street. W. S. Wong, and C. Paulson, Nano Lett. 9, 3494(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Bruschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, Adv. Mater. 21, 325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Hu, and G. Chen, Nano Lett. 7, 3249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

T. Zdanowicz, T. Rodziewicz, and M. Zabkowska-Waclawek, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 757 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Bhattacharya, D. Banerjee, K. W. Adu, S. Samui, and S. Bhattacharyyaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. C. Tauc, Amorphous and Liquid Semiconconductor(Plenum, 1974).

Adu, K. W.

S. Bhattacharya, D. Banerjee, K. W. Adu, S. Samui, and S. Bhattacharyyaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Bruschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, Adv. Mater. 21, 325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, Harry A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, D.

S. Bhattacharya, D. Banerjee, K. W. Adu, S. Samui, and S. Bhattacharyyaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bao, H.

Bauer, G.

V. A. Sivakov, F. Voigt, A. Berger, G. Bauer, and S. H. Christiansen, Phys. Rev. B 82, 125446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berger, A.

V. A. Sivakov, F. Voigt, A. Berger, G. Bauer, and S. H. Christiansen, Phys. Rev. B 82, 125446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, S.

S. Bhattacharya, D. Banerjee, K. W. Adu, S. Samui, and S. Bhattacharyyaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyyaa, S.

S. Bhattacharya, D. Banerjee, K. W. Adu, S. Samui, and S. Bhattacharyyaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boettcher, S. W.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruschwig, B. S.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Bruschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, Adv. Mater. 21, 325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

L. Hu, and G. Chen, Nano Lett. 7, 3249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, Nano Lett. 10, 2012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christiansen, S. H.

V. A. Sivakov, F. Voigt, A. Berger, G. Bauer, and S. H. Christiansen, Phys. Rev. B 82, 125446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Filler, M. A.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Bruschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, Adv. Mater. 21, 325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garnett, E.

E. Garnett, and P. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

L. Hu, and G. Chen, Nano Lett. 7, 3249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jee, S.-W.

Jung, J.-Y.

Kayes, B. M.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Bruschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, Adv. Mater. 21, 325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-H.

Lewis, N. S.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Bruschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, Adv. Mater. 21, 325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, Nano Lett. 10, 2012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maldonado, S.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Bruschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, Adv. Mater. 21, 325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-T.

Paulson, C.

R. A. Street. W. S. Wong, and C. Paulson, Nano Lett. 9, 3494(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petykiewicz, J. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plass, K. E.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Bruschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, Adv. Mater. 21, 325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. C.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhardt, K.

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, Nano Lett. 10, 2012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodziewicz, T.

T. Zdanowicz, T. Rodziewicz, and M. Zabkowska-Waclawek, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 757 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, X.

Samui, S.

S. Bhattacharya, D. Banerjee, K. W. Adu, S. Samui, and S. Bhattacharyyaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sivakov, V. A.

V. A. Sivakov, F. Voigt, A. Berger, G. Bauer, and S. H. Christiansen, Phys. Rev. B 82, 125446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Bruschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, Adv. Mater. 21, 325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Street, R. A.

R. A. Street. W. S. Wong, and C. Paulson, Nano Lett. 9, 3494(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tauc, J. C.

J. C. Tauc, Amorphous and Liquid Semiconconductor(Plenum, 1974).

Turner-Evans, D. B.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Um, H.-D.

Voigt, F.

V. A. Sivakov, F. Voigt, A. Berger, G. Bauer, and S. H. Christiansen, Phys. Rev. B 82, 125446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, Nano Lett. 10, 2012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, E. L.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, W. S.

R. A. Street. W. S. Wong, and C. Paulson, Nano Lett. 9, 3494(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S.

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, Nano Lett. 10, 2012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

E. Garnett, and P. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zabkowska-Waclawek, M.

T. Zdanowicz, T. Rodziewicz, and M. Zabkowska-Waclawek, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 757 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zdanowicz, T.

T. Zdanowicz, T. Rodziewicz, and M. Zabkowska-Waclawek, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 757 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Bruschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, Adv. Mater. 21, 325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Bhattacharya, D. Banerjee, K. W. Adu, S. Samui, and S. Bhattacharyyaa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

E. Garnett, and P. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, Nano Lett. 10, 2012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Hu, and G. Chen, Nano Lett. 7, 3249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Street. W. S. Wong, and C. Paulson, Nano Lett. 9, 3494(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

V. A. Sivakov, F. Voigt, A. Berger, G. Bauer, and S. H. Christiansen, Phys. Rev. B 82, 125446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

T. Zdanowicz, T. Rodziewicz, and M. Zabkowska-Waclawek, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 757 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. C. Tauc, Amorphous and Liquid Semiconconductor(Plenum, 1974).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Total reflection spectra of vertically aligned SiNW arrays measured with a Si substrate with wire lengths of 8 (black square), 12 (red circle), and 16 μ m (blue triangle). Left inset is a plot of ( α E ) 0.5 versus photon energy for bulk Si and the right inset is a magnified view to clarify the cross point wavelength formed by the three reflectance curves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Total reflection and (b) absorption spectra of SNPMs as a function of the wire length. The spectra of SNPMs with wire lengths of 8 (red square), 12 (blue circle), and 16 μ m (green triangle) were measured after detaching the substrates. (Inset) A cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showing the vertically aligned SiNW array that was embedded in PDMS. No structural deformation or damage was observed in the SiNWs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Total reflection spectra of SiNW arrays in which the wire diameter was further reduced by dry oxidation. The inset is a transmission electron microscopy image showing a 25 nm thick oxide shell uniformly formed on the NW surface. (b) The variation of the optical bandgaps resulting from the different morphologies of silicon. (Insets) Cross-sectional SEM images showing the SiNW arrays before (left) and after (right) oxidation. The original diameter ( 112 nm ) of the NWs decreased to 68 nm after removal of the oxide.

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