Abstract

Nanoscale disorder results in severe spectral misalignment of silicon microring resonators and Mach–Zehnder interferometers. We correct for such effects using electric-field-induced waveguide nano-oxidation, demonstrating a tuning wavelength range of several nanometers and 0.002nm resolution without line shape degradation. Field- induced nano-oxidation is a permanent and precise technique and requires no new materials or high-temperature processing.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. A. Kash, F. Doany, D. M. Kuchta, L. Schares, C. Schow, M. Taubenblatt, B. J. Offrein, and A. Benner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThX2.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (1)

J. Zheng, C. J. Chen, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper AMA3.

2010 (5)

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.

P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. A. Kash, F. Doany, D. M. Kuchta, L. Schares, C. Schow, M. Taubenblatt, B. J. Offrein, and A. Benner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThX2.

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Z. Feng, G. L. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 20298 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, Opt. Express 18, 23598 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, I. Meric, K. L. Shepard, C. W. Wong, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and S. Assefa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. Faraon and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 043102(2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Cen, S. Thiel, J. Mannhart, and J. Levy, Science 323, 1026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Pan, Y. Huo, K. Yamanaka, S. Sandhu, L. Scaccabarozzi, R. Timp, M. L. Povinelli, S. Fan, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-H. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, Nat. Photon. 2, 90 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoğlu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Martinez, N. S. Losilla, F. Biscarini, G. Schmidt, T. Borzenko, L. W. Molenkamp, and R. Garcia, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 086106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Badolato, Science 308, 1158 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

P. Avouris, R. Martel, T. Hertel, and R. Sandstrom, Appl. Phys. A 66, S659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

I. W. Lyo and P. Avouris, Science 253, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, M. T. Postek, and J. Bennett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2001(1990).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, I. Meric, K. L. Shepard, C. W. Wong, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and S. Assefa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

P. Avouris, R. Martel, T. Hertel, and R. Sandstrom, Appl. Phys. A 66, S659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Lyo and P. Avouris, Science 253, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoğlu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Badolato, Science 308, 1158 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandaru, P. R.

S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-H. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, Nat. Photon. 2, 90 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

Benner, A.

P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. A. Kash, F. Doany, D. M. Kuchta, L. Schares, C. Schow, M. Taubenblatt, B. J. Offrein, and A. Benner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThX2.

Bennett, J.

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, M. T. Postek, and J. Bennett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2001(1990).
[CrossRef]

Biscarini, F.

J. Martinez, N. S. Losilla, F. Biscarini, G. Schmidt, T. Borzenko, L. W. Molenkamp, and R. Garcia, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 086106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borselli, M.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, M. D. Henry, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Borzenko, T.

J. Martinez, N. S. Losilla, F. Biscarini, G. Schmidt, T. Borzenko, L. W. Molenkamp, and R. Garcia, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 086106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Byun, H.

Cen, C.

C. Cen, S. Thiel, J. Mannhart, and J. Levy, Science 323, 1026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. J.

J. Zheng, C. J. Chen, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper AMA3.

C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, I. Meric, K. L. Shepard, C. W. Wong, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and S. Assefa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dagata, J. A.

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, M. T. Postek, and J. Bennett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2001(1990).
[CrossRef]

DeRose, C. T.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.

Doany, F.

P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. A. Kash, F. Doany, D. M. Kuchta, L. Schares, C. Schow, M. Taubenblatt, B. J. Offrein, and A. Benner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThX2.

Dong, P.

Evans, C. J.

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, M. T. Postek, and J. Bennett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2001(1990).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Pan, Y. Huo, K. Yamanaka, S. Sandhu, L. Scaccabarozzi, R. Timp, M. L. Povinelli, S. Fan, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faraon, A.

A. Faraon and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 043102(2009).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

J. Pan, Y. Huo, K. Yamanaka, S. Sandhu, L. Scaccabarozzi, R. Timp, M. L. Povinelli, S. Fan, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D. Z.

Gan, F.

Garcia, R.

J. Martinez, N. S. Losilla, F. Biscarini, G. Schmidt, T. Borzenko, L. W. Molenkamp, and R. Garcia, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 086106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M.

Green, W. M. J.

C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, I. Meric, K. L. Shepard, C. W. Wong, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and S. Assefa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grein, M.

Harary, H. H.

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, M. T. Postek, and J. Bennett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2001(1990).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

J. Pan, Y. Huo, K. Yamanaka, S. Sandhu, L. Scaccabarozzi, R. Timp, M. L. Povinelli, S. Fan, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hennessy, K.

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoğlu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henry, M. D.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, M. D. Henry, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, T.

P. Avouris, R. Martel, T. Hertel, and R. Sandstrom, Appl. Phys. A 66, S659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Högerle, C.

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoğlu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, C. W.

Hoyt, J. L.

Hu, E.

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoğlu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

J. Pan, Y. Huo, K. Yamanaka, S. Sandhu, L. Scaccabarozzi, R. Timp, M. L. Povinelli, S. Fan, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Husko, C. A.

C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, I. Meric, K. L. Shepard, C. W. Wong, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and S. Assefa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoğlu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Johnson, T. J.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, M. D. Henry, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

Kash, J. A.

P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. A. Kash, F. Doany, D. M. Kuchta, L. Schares, C. Schow, M. Taubenblatt, B. J. Offrein, and A. Benner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThX2.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuchta, D. M.

P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. A. Kash, F. Doany, D. M. Kuchta, L. Schares, C. Schow, M. Taubenblatt, B. J. Offrein, and A. Benner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThX2.

Kwong, D.-L.

J. Zheng, C. J. Chen, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper AMA3.

Levy, J.

C. Cen, S. Thiel, J. Mannhart, and J. Levy, Science 323, 1026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G. L.

Liang, H.

Lo, G.-Q.

J. Zheng, C. J. Chen, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper AMA3.

Losilla, N. S.

J. Martinez, N. S. Losilla, F. Biscarini, G. Schmidt, T. Borzenko, L. W. Molenkamp, and R. Garcia, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 086106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luck, D. L.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.

Lyo, I. W.

I. W. Lyo and P. Avouris, Science 253, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyszczarz, T.

Mannhart, J.

C. Cen, S. Thiel, J. Mannhart, and J. Levy, Science 323, 1026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martel, R.

P. Avouris, R. Martel, T. Hertel, and R. Sandstrom, Appl. Phys. A 66, S659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, J.

J. Martinez, N. S. Losilla, F. Biscarini, G. Schmidt, T. Borzenko, L. W. Molenkamp, and R. Garcia, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 086106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McMillan, J. F.

J. Zheng, C. J. Chen, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper AMA3.

Meric, I.

C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, I. Meric, K. L. Shepard, C. W. Wong, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and S. Assefa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michael, C. P.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, M. D. Henry, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Molenkamp, L. W.

J. Martinez, N. S. Losilla, F. Biscarini, G. Schmidt, T. Borzenko, L. W. Molenkamp, and R. Garcia, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 086106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mookherjea, S.

S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-H. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, Nat. Photon. 2, 90 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nielson, G. N.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.

Offrein, B. J.

P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. A. Kash, F. Doany, D. M. Kuchta, L. Schares, C. Schow, M. Taubenblatt, B. J. Offrein, and A. Benner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThX2.

Olubuyide, O. O.

Orcutt, J. S.

Painter, O.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, M. D. Henry, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J.

J. Pan, Y. Huo, K. Yamanaka, S. Sandhu, L. Scaccabarozzi, R. Timp, M. L. Povinelli, S. Fan, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-H. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, Nat. Photon. 2, 90 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pepeljugoski, P. K.

P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. A. Kash, F. Doany, D. M. Kuchta, L. Schares, C. Schow, M. Taubenblatt, B. J. Offrein, and A. Benner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThX2.

Popovic, M. A.

Postek, M. T.

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, M. T. Postek, and J. Bennett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2001(1990).
[CrossRef]

Povinelli, M. L.

J. Pan, Y. Huo, K. Yamanaka, S. Sandhu, L. Scaccabarozzi, R. Timp, M. L. Povinelli, S. Fan, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Rakich, P. T.

Ram, R. J.

Sandhu, S.

J. Pan, Y. Huo, K. Yamanaka, S. Sandhu, L. Scaccabarozzi, R. Timp, M. L. Povinelli, S. Fan, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sandstrom, R.

P. Avouris, R. Martel, T. Hertel, and R. Sandstrom, Appl. Phys. A 66, S659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scaccabarozzi, L.

J. Pan, Y. Huo, K. Yamanaka, S. Sandhu, L. Scaccabarozzi, R. Timp, M. L. Povinelli, S. Fan, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schares, L.

P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. A. Kash, F. Doany, D. M. Kuchta, L. Schares, C. Schow, M. Taubenblatt, B. J. Offrein, and A. Benner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThX2.

Schmidt, G.

J. Martinez, N. S. Losilla, F. Biscarini, G. Schmidt, T. Borzenko, L. W. Molenkamp, and R. Garcia, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 086106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schneir, J.

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, M. T. Postek, and J. Bennett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2001(1990).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C.

P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. A. Kash, F. Doany, D. M. Kuchta, L. Schares, C. Schow, M. Taubenblatt, B. J. Offrein, and A. Benner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThX2.

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Nat. Photon. 1, 65(2007).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shepard, K. L.

C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, I. Meric, K. L. Shepard, C. W. Wong, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and S. Assefa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

Spector, S.

Stojanovic, V.

Taubenblatt, M.

P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. A. Kash, F. Doany, D. M. Kuchta, L. Schares, C. Schow, M. Taubenblatt, B. J. Offrein, and A. Benner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThX2.

Thiel, S.

C. Cen, S. Thiel, J. Mannhart, and J. Levy, Science 323, 1026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timp, R.

J. Pan, Y. Huo, K. Yamanaka, S. Sandhu, L. Scaccabarozzi, R. Timp, M. L. Povinelli, S. Fan, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, Opt. Express 18, 23598 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Nat. Photon. 1, 65(2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, I. Meric, K. L. Shepard, C. W. Wong, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and S. Assefa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

A. Faraon and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 043102(2009).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

Wong, C. W.

J. Zheng, C. J. Chen, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper AMA3.

C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, I. Meric, K. L. Shepard, C. W. Wong, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and S. Assefa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tuning a microring resonator (MRR). (a) Schematic of electrically induced oxidation of a section of the microring. (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a silicon MRR, with the light path indicated by yellow arrows and the oxidized region by the blue rectangle. The upper arm of the racetrack microring was progressively oxidized by scanning over 9 μm segments with an applied voltage of + 10 V at 26 ° C , 27% relative humidity. (c) Measurements of the intensity transmission at intervals of 25 oxidation scans showed that the resonance was shifted toward shorter wavelengths (blueshifted) over its full free spectral range ( > 3.1 nm ) while preserving sharp resonances ( > 15 dB extinction) and no line shape deformation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Tuning of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI). (a) Schematic of oxidation of a section of the interferometer. (b) SEM image of an MZI that serves as a 2 × 2 routing gate (crossbar switch architecture), with regions to be oxidized indicated as A and B. (c) Measurements of the intensity transmission (shown at intervals of 50 oxidation scans) indicated that the transmission peaks and valleys were systematically shifted to shorter wavelengths (blueshifted) as a consequence of oxidizing region B, then back to longer wavelengths (redshifted) when region A was oxidized. Tunability over the full free spectral range ( 12 nm ) was achieved; thus the MZI can be programmed to any desired transmission over the entire 60 nm range of wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resolution of tuning. (a) A silicon MRR was tuned in single-scan oxidation steps for very accurate resonance positioning over a narrow range of wavelengths while preserving high-contrast extinction ratio ( > 20 dB ). Rows of dots indicate the most stringent International Telecommunications Union (ITU-T) G.941.1 spectral grid spacing (for 12.5 GHz carrier-class telecommunications systems). (b) The resonance wavelengths blueshifted linearly with a slope of 2.1 pm (approximately 260 MHz )/scan.

Equations (1)

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Δ n eff = L rt L ox ( Δ λ λ ) n eff ( λ ) ( 1 λ n eff ( λ ) d n eff d λ | λ ) ,

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