Abstract

Wire-grid polarizer sheets in the terahertz region have been fabricated on flexible substrates by nanoimprint technology. They show an ideal polarization property in the terahertz frequency region, whereas the cost is very low. Since the wire pitch is far smaller than the wavelength, the effective medium theory agrees well with experimental results. The effective medium theory shows the possibility of further improvement of polarization properties by selecting appropriate materials for wire grids.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D.Mittleman, ed., Sensing with Terahertz Radiation (Springer, 2002).
  2. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K.Sakai, ed., Terahertz Optoelectronics (Springer, 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Sumikura, T. Nagashima, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1739 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, Appl. Opt. 48, 2037 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Nagashima and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3917 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Matsumoto, T. Fujii, K. Kageyama, H. Takagi, T. Nagashima, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09KC11 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Hoffman, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 404 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Sakai and L. Genzel, in Reviews of Infrared and Millimeter Waves Volume 1 (Plenum, 1983), p. 155.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (3)

T. Hoffman, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (IEEE, 2010), paper We-B1.5.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Expr. 3, 016701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2007 (2)

H. Sumikura, T. Nagashima, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Deng, M. Buonanno, S. Tai, and X. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, and T. Nagashima, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 1661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K.Sakai, ed., Terahertz Optoelectronics (Springer, 2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D.Mittleman, ed., Sensing with Terahertz Radiation (Springer, 2002).

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Nagashima and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4129 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1983 (2)

M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, and C. A. Ward, Appl. Opt. 22, 1099 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakai and L. Genzel, in Reviews of Infrared and Millimeter Waves Volume 1 (Plenum, 1983), p. 155.

1979 (1)

C. L. Mok, W. G. Chambers, T. J. Parker, and A. E. Costley, Infrared Phys. 19, 437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films(Butterworths, 1955).

Abe, Y.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Expr. 3, 016701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, K.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Expr. 3, 016701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

Basov, D. N.

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Boosalis, A.

T. Hoffman, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buonanno, M.

L. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Deng, M. Buonanno, S. Tai, and X. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chambers, W. G.

C. L. Mok, W. G. Chambers, T. J. Parker, and A. E. Costley, Infrared Phys. 19, 437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Deng, M. Buonanno, S. Tai, and X. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4129 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (IEEE, 2010), paper We-B1.5.

Costley, A. E.

C. L. Mok, W. G. Chambers, T. J. Parker, and A. E. Costley, Infrared Phys. 19, 437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Deng, L. Y.

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (IEEE, 2010), paper We-B1.5.

Deng, X.

L. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Deng, M. Buonanno, S. Tai, and X. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

N. Matsumoto, T. Fujii, K. Kageyama, H. Takagi, T. Nagashima, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09KC11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Genzel, L.

K. Sakai and L. Genzel, in Reviews of Infrared and Millimeter Waves Volume 1 (Plenum, 1983), p. 155.

Haggans, C. W.

Hangyo, M.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Expr. 3, 016701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Matsumoto, T. Fujii, K. Kageyama, H. Takagi, T. Nagashima, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09KC11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamada, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, M. Saito, and W. Watanabe, Opt. Lett. 34, 274 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sumikura, T. Nagashima, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, and T. Nagashima, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 1661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nagashima and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heavens, S.

S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films(Butterworths, 1955).

Herzinger, C. M.

T. Hoffman, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, T.

T. Hoffman, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-F.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Expr. 3, 016701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jördens, C.

Kageyama, K.

N. Matsumoto, T. Fujii, K. Kageyama, H. Takagi, T. Nagashima, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09KC11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawabata, T.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Expr. 3, 016701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kitahara, H.

H. Sumikura, T. Nagashima, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

Kostuk, R. K.

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4129 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Liu, X.

L. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Deng, M. Buonanno, S. Tai, and X. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Matsumoto, N.

N. Matsumoto, T. Fujii, K. Kageyama, H. Takagi, T. Nagashima, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09KC11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mikulics, M.

Miyamaru, F.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Expr. 3, 016701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mok, C. L.

C. L. Mok, W. G. Chambers, T. J. Parker, and A. E. Costley, Infrared Phys. 19, 437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nagashima, T.

N. Matsumoto, T. Fujii, K. Kageyama, H. Takagi, T. Nagashima, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09KC11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Sumikura, T. Nagashima, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, and T. Nagashima, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 1661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nagashima and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Padilla, W. J.

Pan, C.-L.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Expr. 3, 016701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, R.-P.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Expr. 3, 016701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Parker, T. J.

C. L. Mok, W. G. Chambers, T. J. Parker, and A. E. Costley, Infrared Phys. 19, 437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4129 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

Sakai, K.

K. Sakai and L. Genzel, in Reviews of Infrared and Millimeter Waves Volume 1 (Plenum, 1983), p. 155.

Scheller, M.

Schubert, M.

T. Hoffman, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

Sumikura, H.

H. Sumikura, T. Nagashima, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tai, S.

L. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Deng, M. Buonanno, S. Tai, and X. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, H.

N. Matsumoto, T. Fujii, K. Kageyama, H. Takagi, T. Nagashima, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09KC11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takano, K.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Expr. 3, 016701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamada, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, M. Saito, and W. Watanabe, Opt. Lett. 34, 274 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tani, M.

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, and T. Nagashima, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 1661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanoto, H.

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (IEEE, 2010), paper We-B1.5.

Teng, J. H.

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (IEEE, 2010), paper We-B1.5.

Tiwald, T. E.

T. Hoffman, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tokuda, Y.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Expr. 3, 016701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walters, F.

L. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Deng, M. Buonanno, S. Tai, and X. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. J.

L. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Deng, M. Buonanno, S. Tai, and X. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Watanabe, W.

Wichmann, M.

Wiesauer, K.

Woollam, J. A.

T. Hoffman, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, I.

Yew, S. Y.

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (IEEE, 2010), paper We-B1.5.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (IEEE, 2010), paper We-B1.5.

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Expr. (1)

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Expr. 3, 016701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Deng, M. Buonanno, S. Tai, and X. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Nagashima and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

C. L. Mok, W. G. Chambers, T. J. Parker, and A. E. Costley, Infrared Phys. 19, 437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, and T. Nagashima, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 1661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4129 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

N. Matsumoto, T. Fujii, K. Kageyama, H. Takagi, T. Nagashima, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09KC11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Sumikura, T. Nagashima, H. Kitahara, and M. Hangyo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Hoffman, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

K. Sakai and L. Genzel, in Reviews of Infrared and Millimeter Waves Volume 1 (Plenum, 1983), p. 155.

K.Sakai, ed., Terahertz Optoelectronics (Springer, 2005).
[CrossRef]

D.Mittleman, ed., Sensing with Terahertz Radiation (Springer, 2002).

S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films(Butterworths, 1955).

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (IEEE, 2010), paper We-B1.5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic and (b) SEM image of a WGS fabricated on a TAC film. Inset, photograph of the flexible WGS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental (blue and red circles) and calculated (blue and red solid lines) transmission spectra for the polarizations perpendicular and parallel to the wires, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction ratios of the WGSs calculated for several kinds of metals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission and extinction ratio spectra calculated using Eqs. (1, 2, 3) with n m for Ag, n 2 = 1.54 + i 0.05 , and d 2 = 10 μm .

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n = n 0 2 ( 1 D ) + n m 2 D , n = n 0 2 n m 2 ( 1 D ) n m 2 + D n 0 2 ,
ε m = 1 ω p 2 ω ( ω + i γ ) , n m = ε m .
T = | t 01 t 12 t 20 e i ( k 1 d 1 + k 2 d 2 ) i k 0 ( d 1 + d 2 ) 1 + r 01 r 12 e 2 i k 1 d 1 + r 01 r 20 e 2 i ( k 1 d 1 + k 2 d 2 ) + r 12 r 20 e 2 i k 2 d 2 | 2 ,

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