Abstract

We report on the first results to our knowledge obtained with adaptable multiaperture imaging through turbulence on a horizontal atmospheric path. We show that the resolution can be improved by adaptively matching the size of the subaperture to the characteristic size of the turbulence. Further improvement is achieved by the deconvolution of a number of subimages registered simultaneously through multiple subapertures. Different implementations of multiaperture geometry, including pupil multiplication, pupil image sampling, and a plenoptic telescope, are considered. Resolution improvement has been demonstrated on a 550m horizontal turbulent path, using a combination of aperture sampling, speckle image processing, and, optionally, frame selection.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. A. A. Pakhomov and K. R. Losin, Opt. Commun. 125, 5 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

B. Calef, Proc. SPIE 7701, 77010G (2010).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).

A. A. Pakhomov and K. R. Losin, Opt. Commun. 125, 5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. H. Adelson and J. Y. A. Wang, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 14, 99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1985 (1)

J. Hecquet and G. Coupinot, J. Opt. 16, 21 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Adelson, E. H.

E. H. Adelson and J. Y. A. Wang, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 14, 99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arnaud, J.

Calef, B.

B. Calef, Proc. SPIE 7701, 77010G (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coarer, E. L.

Coupinot, G.

J. Hecquet and G. Coupinot, J. Opt. 16, 21 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

Hecquet, J.

J. Hecquet and G. Coupinot, J. Opt. 16, 21 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lelievre, G.

Losin, K. R.

A. A. Pakhomov and K. R. Losin, Opt. Commun. 125, 5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nieto, J. L.

Pakhomov, A. A.

A. A. Pakhomov and K. R. Losin, Opt. Commun. 125, 5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roggemann, M. C.

M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).

Sebag, J.

Wang, J. Y. A.

E. H. Adelson and J. Y. A. Wang, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 14, 99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, B.

M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. (1)

E. H. Adelson and J. Y. A. Wang, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 14, 99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

J. Hecquet and G. Coupinot, J. Opt. 16, 21 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. A. Pakhomov and K. R. Losin, Opt. Commun. 125, 5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Calef, Proc. SPIE 7701, 77010G (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multiaperture telescope with subaperture size adaptable to the turbulence scale D / r 0 , producing multiple subimages in a single frame. (a) Direct pupil sampling, (b) pupil image sampling, and (c) plenoptic imaging schemes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of a system with pupil image segmentation. M, F / 5.5 parabolic mirror with a diameter of 254 mm ; D, field diaphragm; L, lens with 30 mm focal length; MLA, orthogonal microlens array with 1.5 mm pitch and 42 mm focal length; CAM, CCD camera (UI-2210M).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of the object taken at weak turbulence with (a) full aperture and with (b) segmented aperture of 25 cm telescope. Features of diffraction-limited scale (with respect to subaperture size) are indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reconstruction from seven subapertures and one frame; (a) average, (b) sharpest, and (c) reconstructed images. Reconstruction parameters: no selection, stabilization, apodization, three iterations, PSF size 700 points, Δ = 1 / 256 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reconstruction from seven subapertures and 20 frames; (a) average, (b) sharpest, and (c) reconstructed images. 25% selection, stabilization, apodization, three iterations, PSF size 2000 points, Δ = 1 / 700 .

Equations (5)

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P 5.6 exp ( 0.1557 ( D / r 0 ) 2 ) for     D / r 0 3.5 .
i n = o * h n + b n , n = 1 , , N ,
I n = O · H n + B n , n = 1 , , N ,
H m = I m n = 1 N H n I n * n = 1 N I n I n * , m = 1 , , N .
O = n = 1 N I n H n * n = 1 N H n H n * + Δ ,

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