Abstract

Slowing light in a Bragg reflector waveguide is used to miniaturize optical waveguide switches. We can realize a giant equivalent refractive index change induced by carrier injection near a cutoff wavelength due to its large waveguide dispersion. We fabricate and characterize a reflection-type slow-light switch. Input light is reflected at the off state due to an equivalent index difference between an oxide aperture and an oxide region, while it passes through at the on state, since the equivalent index difference is compensated using carrier injection. We obtained a large bending angle of 30° with total internal reflection of slow light.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (3)

A. Fuchida, P. B. Dayal, T. Sakaguchi, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, in Proceedings of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2008), pp. 525–526.
[CrossRef]

A. Fuchida and F. Koyama, IEICE Electron. Express 5, 349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Lett. 33, 147 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

G. Hirano, F. Koyama, K. Hasebe, T. Sakaguchi, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, and C. E. Zah, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (Optical Society of America, 2007), p. PDP34.

2005 (2)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Yanga and C. T. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 023108(2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1995 (1)

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995).

1990 (1)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Scoref, and J. A. D. Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Alamo, J. A. D.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Scoref, and J. A. D. Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Beggs, D. M.

Bennett, B. R.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Scoref, and J. A. D. Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

G. Hirano, F. Koyama, K. Hasebe, T. Sakaguchi, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, and C. E. Zah, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (Optical Society of America, 2007), p. PDP34.

Chang, C. T.

S. Y. Yanga and C. T. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 023108(2005).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995).

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995).

Dayal, P. B.

A. Fuchida, P. B. Dayal, T. Sakaguchi, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, in Proceedings of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2008), pp. 525–526.
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Fuchida, A.

A. Fuchida, T. Sakairi, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, “Characterizations of reflection-type slow light optical switches,” presented at Micro Optics Conference, TB6, Hsinchu, Taiwan, October 2010.

A. Fuchida and F. Koyama, ““Low-dispersion InGaAsP/InP slow light waveguide optical switch with coupled Bragg reflector waveguide,” presented at IEEE Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, MB1.4, Newport Beach, Calif., USA May 2009.

A. Fuchida, P. B. Dayal, T. Sakaguchi, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, in Proceedings of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2008), pp. 525–526.
[CrossRef]

A. Fuchida and F. Koyama, IEICE Electron. Express 5, 349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasebe, K.

G. Hirano, F. Koyama, K. Hasebe, T. Sakaguchi, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, and C. E. Zah, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (Optical Society of America, 2007), p. PDP34.

Hirano, G.

G. Hirano, F. Koyama, K. Hasebe, T. Sakaguchi, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, and C. E. Zah, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (Optical Society of America, 2007), p. PDP34.

Ibanescu, M.

Ippen, E.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Koyama, F.

A. Fuchida, T. Sakairi, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, “Characterizations of reflection-type slow light optical switches,” presented at Micro Optics Conference, TB6, Hsinchu, Taiwan, October 2010.

A. Fuchida and F. Koyama, ““Low-dispersion InGaAsP/InP slow light waveguide optical switch with coupled Bragg reflector waveguide,” presented at IEEE Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, MB1.4, Newport Beach, Calif., USA May 2009.

A. Fuchida, P. B. Dayal, T. Sakaguchi, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, in Proceedings of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2008), pp. 525–526.
[CrossRef]

A. Fuchida and F. Koyama, IEICE Electron. Express 5, 349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Hirano, F. Koyama, K. Hasebe, T. Sakaguchi, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, and C. E. Zah, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (Optical Society of America, 2007), p. PDP34.

Krauss, T. F.

Matsutani, A.

A. Fuchida, T. Sakairi, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, “Characterizations of reflection-type slow light optical switches,” presented at Micro Optics Conference, TB6, Hsinchu, Taiwan, October 2010.

A. Fuchida, P. B. Dayal, T. Sakaguchi, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, in Proceedings of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2008), pp. 525–526.
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishiyama, N.

G. Hirano, F. Koyama, K. Hasebe, T. Sakaguchi, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, and C. E. Zah, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (Optical Society of America, 2007), p. PDP34.

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

Sakaguchi, T.

A. Fuchida, P. B. Dayal, T. Sakaguchi, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, in Proceedings of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2008), pp. 525–526.
[CrossRef]

G. Hirano, F. Koyama, K. Hasebe, T. Sakaguchi, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, and C. E. Zah, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (Optical Society of America, 2007), p. PDP34.

Sakairi, T.

A. Fuchida, T. Sakairi, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, “Characterizations of reflection-type slow light optical switches,” presented at Micro Optics Conference, TB6, Hsinchu, Taiwan, October 2010.

Scoref, R. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Scoref, and J. A. D. Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, T. P.

Yanga, S. Y.

S. Y. Yanga and C. T. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 023108(2005).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yeht, P.

Zah, C. E.

G. Hirano, F. Koyama, K. Hasebe, T. Sakaguchi, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, and C. E. Zah, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (Optical Society of America, 2007), p. PDP34.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Scoref, and J. A. D. Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

A. Fuchida and F. Koyama, IEICE Electron. Express 5, 349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Y. Yanga and C. T. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 023108(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

A. Fuchida, T. Sakairi, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, “Characterizations of reflection-type slow light optical switches,” presented at Micro Optics Conference, TB6, Hsinchu, Taiwan, October 2010.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995).

A. Fuchida, P. B. Dayal, T. Sakaguchi, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, in Proceedings of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2008), pp. 525–526.
[CrossRef]

G. Hirano, F. Koyama, K. Hasebe, T. Sakaguchi, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, and C. E. Zah, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (Optical Society of America, 2007), p. PDP34.

A. Fuchida and F. Koyama, ““Low-dispersion InGaAsP/InP slow light waveguide optical switch with coupled Bragg reflector waveguide,” presented at IEEE Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, MB1.4, Newport Beach, Calif., USA May 2009.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic 3D structure and cross-sectional view of slow-light switch, (b) top view of switching operation, (c) mechanism of giant equivalent index change.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured near-field patterns in the incident wavelength of 1524 nm with injection current of (a)  0 mA , (b)  25 mA , (c)  30 mA , (d)  35 mA .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized intensity of reflection and transmission versus injection current in the wavelength of (a)  1520 nm , (b)  1522 nm , (c)  1524 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fitting curves with the measured (dots) and calculated (solid line) values for normalized reflectivity and transmittance in the wavelength of (a)  1520 nm , (b)  1522 nm , (c)  1524 nm .

Equations (2)

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R = | ( n eq Δ n eq ) sec ϕ 1 n ox sec ϕ 2 ( n eq Δ n eq ) sec ϕ 1 + n ox sec ϕ 2 | 2 .
Δ n = d n d N η i τ I q V .

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