Abstract

In this Letter, we report the improved light outcoupling efficiency of conventional white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) by a kind of multifunctional film with both antireflective and superhydrophobic ability. This film consisted of regular polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopillar arrays, which were readily batch produced by low-cost imprint lithography. The nanopillar arrays could effectively eliminate the light total reflection and enhance the device efficiency of OLEDs by producing the gradual refractive index due to the decreasing material density from glass to air. Moreover, owing to its superhydrophobicity (contact angle 151°), the antireflective film exhibited self-cleaning ability, which was beneficial for keeping the OLEDs substrate clean and ensure the high efficiency of OLEDs. This method is simple, cost-effective, and reproducible. The OLEDs showed an efficiency enhancement of 25% with the multifunctional film.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2011

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, J. Yao, X. Yao, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, L. Jiang, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 23, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 10, 1979 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, J. Jiao, B. B. Xu, X. F. Lin, Y. Xu, and H. B. Sun, Soft Matt. 6, 263 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, J. Yao, Y. C. Guan, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 053704(2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, B. B. Xu, J. Jiao, Y. Xu, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nat. Photon. 2, 483 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Sun, A. Gonzalez, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Yates, I. D. W. Samuel, P. L. Burn, S. Wedge, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 30, 2302(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Grüner, R. Cacialli, and R. H. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 207 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

C. J. Yates, I. D. W. Samuel, P. L. Burn, S. Wedge, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burn, P. L.

C. J. Yates, I. D. W. Samuel, P. L. Burn, S. Wedge, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cacialli, R.

J. Grüner, R. Cacialli, and R. H. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 207 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q. D.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, J. Yao, X. Yao, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, L. Jiang, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 23, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, J. Jiao, B. B. Xu, X. F. Lin, Y. Xu, and H. B. Sun, Soft Matt. 6, 263 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, J. Yao, Y. C. Guan, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 053704(2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, B. B. Xu, J. Jiao, Y. Xu, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, T. Y.

C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 10, 1979 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 10, 1979 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H. H.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, J. Yao, Y. C. Guan, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 053704(2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nat. Photon. 2, 483 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

J. Grüner, R. Cacialli, and R. H. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 207 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, A.

C. H. Sun, A. Gonzalez, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grüner, J.

J. Grüner, R. Cacialli, and R. H. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 207 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guan, Y. C.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, J. Yao, Y. C. Guan, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 053704(2010).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 10, 1979 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, B.

C. H. Sun, A. Gonzalez, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, J. Yao, X. Yao, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, L. Jiang, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 23, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, P.

C. H. Sun, A. Gonzalez, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, J.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, J. Jiao, B. B. Xu, X. F. Lin, Y. Xu, and H. B. Sun, Soft Matt. 6, 263 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, B. B. Xu, J. Jiao, Y. Xu, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Juni, N.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, K.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. F.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, J. Jiao, B. B. Xu, X. F. Lin, Y. Xu, and H. B. Sun, Soft Matt. 6, 263 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linn, N. C.

C. H. Sun, A. Gonzalez, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moller, S.

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niu, L. G.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, J. Yao, X. Yao, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, L. Jiang, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 23, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, J. Yao, Y. C. Guan, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 053704(2010).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

Parker, A. R.

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothberg, L. J.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

C. J. Yates, I. D. W. Samuel, P. L. Burn, S. Wedge, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. H.

C. H. Sun, A. Gonzalez, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, J. Yao, X. Yao, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, L. Jiang, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 23, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, J. Yao, Y. C. Guan, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 053704(2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, J. Jiao, B. B. Xu, X. F. Lin, Y. Xu, and H. B. Sun, Soft Matt. 6, 263 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, B. B. Xu, J. Jiao, Y. Xu, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nat. Photon. 2, 483 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Townley, H. E.

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, N.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. N.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, J. Yao, X. Yao, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, L. Jiang, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 23, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, J. Yao, Y. C. Guan, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 053704(2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wedge, S.

C. J. Yates, I. D. W. Samuel, P. L. Burn, S. Wedge, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, J. Yao, X. Yao, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, L. Jiang, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 23, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, J. Jiao, B. B. Xu, X. F. Lin, Y. Xu, and H. B. Sun, Soft Matt. 6, 263 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, J. Yao, Y. C. Guan, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 053704(2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, B. B. Xu, J. Jiao, Y. Xu, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Z.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, J. Yao, X. Yao, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, L. Jiang, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 23, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, H.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, J. Jiao, B. B. Xu, X. F. Lin, Y. Xu, and H. B. Sun, Soft Matt. 6, 263 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, B. B. Xu, J. Jiao, Y. Xu, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B. B.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, J. Jiao, B. B. Xu, X. F. Lin, Y. Xu, and H. B. Sun, Soft Matt. 6, 263 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, B. B. Xu, J. Jiao, Y. Xu, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, J. Jiao, B. B. Xu, X. F. Lin, Y. Xu, and H. B. Sun, Soft Matt. 6, 263 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, B. B. Xu, J. Jiao, Y. Xu, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yahiro, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, J. Yao, X. Yao, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, L. Jiang, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 23, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, J. Yao, Y. C. Guan, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 053704(2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, J. Yao, X. Yao, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, L. Jiang, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 23, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yates, C. J.

C. J. Yates, I. D. W. Samuel, P. L. Burn, S. Wedge, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yokogawa, H.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 10, 1979 (2010).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

External quantum efficiency enhancement of white OLEDs by antireflective films. (a) and (b) The reference OLEDs structure and the OLEDs with antireflective films. (c) and (d) The light outcoupling mechanism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Antireflective nanopillar arrays prepared by low-cost imprint lithography. (a) Top-view from the SEM of the hole template. (b) Cross-sectional SEM image of the template. (c) and (d)  45 ° tilted-view of the SEM and locally magnified image of the regular nanopillar arrays.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Enhanced EL intensity in the normal direction of the OLEDs by the antireflective films. (b) The optical transmittance spectra of the flat PDMS surface and nanopillar arrays. (c) and (d) Luminance and current efficiency characteristics of the OLEDs with and without antireflective films as a function of current density.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Self-cleaning superhydrophobic ability of the nanopillar arrays. (a) and (b) The wetting property and antidust ability of the flat surface and nanopillar arrays. (c) The optical transmittance before and after being immersed into dirty water. (d) and (e) Comparison of the flat glass and pillar arrays characterized by the SEM image.

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