Abstract

A high-performance and compact fiber-to-waveguide binary blazed subwavelength grating coupler was designed based on silicon-on-insulator. By the appropriate choice of waveguide/grating parameters, including thicknesses, periods, height, and fill factor, to optimize the mode matching, a relatively high coupling efficiency was obtained for the fiber and waveguide interface. Moreover, perfectly vertical fiber coupling is achieved by using an asymmetric subgrating structure in which a period consists of two subgratings with identical etching height and different widths. Coupling efficiency as high as 69% at a wavelength of 1.52μm and 65% at a wavelength of 1.55μm is calculated. Simultaneously, the 1dB wavelength bandwidth is around 80nm. The coupling efficiency can reach up to 80% or so if Bragg reflector layers are added. Finally, the device layout is simple, feasible, one-step etched, and compatible with standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology processing.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, Opt. Express 14, 664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 14, 11622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feng and Z. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 6351, 63511H (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP15.

2004 (2)

G. J. Liu, Q. Li, G. L. Jin, and B. M. Liang, Opt. Commun. 235, 319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, Opt. Rev. 10, 63(2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Baets, R.

Beckx, S.

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, and G. Roelkens, “Cross-disciplinary project of Xi’an Jiaotong University,” presented at the 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, San Francisco, Calif., September 9–11, 2009.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, Opt. Express 14, 664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP15.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drabik, T. J.

Dumon, P.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP15.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, Opt. Express 14, 664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

Feng, J.

J. Feng and Z. Zhou, Opt. Lett. 32, 1662 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feng and Z. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 6351, 63511H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujikawa, H.

Fung, C. K. Y.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hyvärinen, H. J.

Iizuka, H.

Jaenen, P.

Jin, G. L.

G. J. Liu, Q. Li, G. L. Jin, and B. M. Liang, Opt. Commun. 235, 319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karvinen, P.

Kikuta, H.

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, Opt. Rev. 10, 63(2003).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Lee, M.-S. L.

Lepage, G.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, and G. Roelkens, “Cross-disciplinary project of Xi’an Jiaotong University,” presented at the 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, San Francisco, Calif., September 9–11, 2009.

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

G. J. Liu, Q. Li, G. L. Jin, and B. M. Liang, Opt. Commun. 235, 319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, B. M.

G. J. Liu, Q. Li, G. L. Jin, and B. M. Liang, Opt. Commun. 235, 319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. J.

G. J. Liu, Q. Li, G. L. Jin, and B. M. Liang, Opt. Commun. 235, 319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, S. M. G.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rodier, J.-C.

Roelkens, G.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, and G. Roelkens, “Cross-disciplinary project of Xi’an Jiaotong University,” presented at the 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, San Francisco, Calif., September 9–11, 2009.

G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 32, 1495 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP15.

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 14, 11622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Sato, K.

Schrauwen, J.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP15.

Selvaraja, S.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, and G. Roelkens, “Cross-disciplinary project of Xi’an Jiaotong University,” presented at the 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, San Francisco, Calif., September 9–11, 2009.

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP15.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, Opt. Express 14, 664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, Y.

Thourhout, D. V.

Toyota, H.

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, Opt. Rev. 10, 63(2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP15.

Van Thourhout, D.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP15.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, Opt. Express 14, 664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 14, 11622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verheyen, P.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, and G. Roelkens, “Cross-disciplinary project of Xi’an Jiaotong University,” presented at the 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, San Francisco, Calif., September 9–11, 2009.

Vermeulen, D.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, and G. Roelkens, “Cross-disciplinary project of Xi’an Jiaotong University,” presented at the 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, San Francisco, Calif., September 9–11, 2009.

Wouters, J.

Yu, W.

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, Opt. Rev. 10, 63(2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. J. Liu, Q. Li, G. L. Jin, and B. M. Liang, Opt. Commun. 235, 319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, Opt. Rev. 10, 63(2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Feng and Z. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 6351, 63511H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Other (2)

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP15.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, and G. Roelkens, “Cross-disciplinary project of Xi’an Jiaotong University,” presented at the 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, San Francisco, Calif., September 9–11, 2009.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of binary blazed grating coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Design principle of binary blazed grating coupler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of the optical field in the waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship of coupling efficiency and wavelength for T = 0.6 μm , h = 0.22 μm , d = 0.12 μm , and w = 0.9 μm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship of coupling efficiency and incident angle for T = 0.6 μm , h = 0.22 μm , d = 0.12 μm , w = 0.9 μm , and λ = 1.55 μm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship of coupling efficiency and period for h = 0.22 μm , d = 0.12 μm , w = 0.9 μm , and λ = 1.55 μm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relationship of coupling efficiency and etching depth for T = 0.6 μm , h = 0.22 μm , w = 0.9 μm , and λ = 1.55 μm .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Multilayer reflector deposited in the substrate to enhance the coupling efficiency.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Design Parameters of Binary Blazed Grating Coupler (Unit: Micrometers)

Equations (9)

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( n w 2 N eff 2 ) 1 / 2 · 2 π λ h = m π + tan 1 [ C 1 · ( N eff 2 n c 2 n w 2 N eff 2 ) 1 / 2 ] + tan 1 [ C 2 · ( N eff 2 n s 2 n w 2 N eff 2 ) 1 / 2 ] , C 1 = C 2 = 1 ,
T × ( N eff n 1 · sin θ ) = m λ ( m = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 ) .
n eff = f n 1 2 + ( 1 f ) n 2 2 ,
h i = 1 2 × [ H 1 N · i + H 1 N · ( i 1 ) ] = ( 2 i 1 ) H 1 2 N ( i = 1 , 2 , 3 N ) ,
h i H 3 n 1 + H 3 h i H 3 n 2 = n eff .
f i = [ 2 i 1 2 N H 1 H 3 ( n 1 n 2 ) + n 2 ] 2 n 2 2 n 1 2 n 2 2 ( i = 1 , 2 , 3 N ) .
f i = [ ( 2 i 1 ) 4 H 1 H 3 ( 3.5 1 ) + 1 ] 2 1 3.5 2 1 = [ 5 8 ( 2 i 1 ) H 1 H 3 + 1 ] 2 1 11.25 .
f 1 = [ 5 8 H 1 H 3 + 1 ] 2 1 11.25 , f 2 = [ 15 8 H 1 H 3 + 1 ] 2 1 11.25 .
f 2 = [ 15 8 H 1 H 3 + 1 ] 2 1 11.25 1 , thus     H 1 H 3 4 3 1.3.

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