Abstract

We demonstrate terahertz (THz) frequency imaging using a single quantum cascade laser (QCL) device for both generation and sensing of THz radiation. Detection is achieved by utilizing the effect of self-mixing in the THz QCL, and, specifically, by monitoring perturbations to the voltage across the QCL, induced by light reflected from an external object back into the laser cavity. Self-mixing imaging offers high sensitivity, a potentially fast response, and a simple, compact optical design, and we show that it can be used to obtain high-resolution reflection images of exemplar structures.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010

2009

2008

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, M. U. Shaukat, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Burnett, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and S. Chakraborty, Opt. Express 16, 5997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. R. Tucker, A. D. Rakic, C.J. O’Brien, and A. V. Zvyagin, Appl. Opt. 46, 611 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Williams, Nat. Photon. 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Bosch, C. Bes, L. Scalise, and G. Plantier, in Encyclopedia of Sensors, C.A.Grimes, E.C.Dickey, and M.V.Pishko, eds. (American Scientific, 2006), Vol.  X, pp. 1–20.

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. F. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, Opt. Express 14, 2123 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Donati, Electro-Optical Instrumentation: Sensing and Measuring with Lasers (Prentice Hall, 2004).

2003

G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

S. Donati, Photodetectors (Prentice Hall, 1999).

1996

S. Donati and M. Sorel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

Ajili, L.

G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, P.

Alton, J.

Baker, C.

Barbieri, S.

Beere, H.

G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. F. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, Opt. Express 14, 2123 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, C. Baker, T. Lo, H. E. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Opt. Express 13, 6497 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertling, K.

Bes, C.

T. Bosch, C. Bes, L. Scalise, and G. Plantier, in Encyclopedia of Sensors, C.A.Grimes, E.C.Dickey, and M.V.Pishko, eds. (American Scientific, 2006), Vol.  X, pp. 1–20.

Bosch, T.

T. Bosch, C. Bes, L. Scalise, and G. Plantier, in Encyclopedia of Sensors, C.A.Grimes, E.C.Dickey, and M.V.Pishko, eds. (American Scientific, 2006), Vol.  X, pp. 1–20.

Burnett, A.

Chakraborty, S.

Cunningham, J.

Davies, A. G.

Davies, G.

G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dean, P.

Donati, S.

S. Donati, Electro-Optical Instrumentation: Sensing and Measuring with Lasers (Prentice Hall, 2004).

S. Donati, Photodetectors (Prentice Hall, 1999).

S. Donati and M. Sorel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, J.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, L. F.

Green, R. P.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, P.

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoyler, N.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ikonic, Z.

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Indjin, D.

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, P. A.

Johns, M. L.

Kelsall, R. W.

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. P.

Kliese, R.

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lachab, M.

Lee, A. W. M.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. L.

Linfield, E. H.

P. Dean, N. K. Saat, S. P. Khanna, M. Salih, A. Burnett, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Express 17, 20631 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dean, M. U. Shaukat, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Burnett, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and S. Chakraborty, Opt. Express 16, 5997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. F. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, Opt. Express 14, 2123 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, T.

Mahler, L.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, K. L.

O’Brien, C. J.

Pepper, M.

Plantier, G.

T. Bosch, C. Bes, L. Scalise, and G. Plantier, in Encyclopedia of Sensors, C.A.Grimes, E.C.Dickey, and M.V.Pishko, eds. (American Scientific, 2006), Vol.  X, pp. 1–20.

Qin, Q.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rakic, A. D.

Reno, J. L.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, C. Baker, T. Lo, H. E. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Opt. Express 13, 6497 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. F. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, Opt. Express 14, 2123 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rochford, K.

Rose, A.

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saat, N. K.

Salih, M.

Scalari, G.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scalise, L.

T. Bosch, C. Bes, L. Scalise, and G. Plantier, in Encyclopedia of Sensors, C.A.Grimes, E.C.Dickey, and M.V.Pishko, eds. (American Scientific, 2006), Vol.  X, pp. 1–20.

Shaukat, M. U.

Sorel, M.

S. Donati and M. Sorel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanimizu, K.

Terazzi, R.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tucker, J. R.

Walther, C.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B.

B. Williams, Nat. Photon. 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Worrall, C. H.

Xu, J. H.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zvyagin, A. V.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. W. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Donati and M. Sorel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

B. Williams, Nat. Photon. 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

S. Donati, Photodetectors (Prentice Hall, 1999).

T. Bosch, C. Bes, L. Scalise, and G. Plantier, in Encyclopedia of Sensors, C.A.Grimes, E.C.Dickey, and M.V.Pishko, eds. (American Scientific, 2006), Vol.  X, pp. 1–20.

S. Donati, Electro-Optical Instrumentation: Sensing and Measuring with Lasers (Prentice Hall, 2004).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental system used for THz imaging with a QCL. S, current source; OSC, oscilloscope; LA, lock-in amplifier; C, mechanical chopper; O, object. Inset: emission spectrum of the THz QCL, as measured using a Fourier-transform spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Exemplar waveform (bottom trace) obtained after amplification of the ac-coupled voltage dropped across the QCL in response to a square-modulated feedback signal. The TTL feedback control signal (top trace) has been scaled and offset. (b) Root-mean-square self-mixing signal (left axis) and QCL power (right axis) as a function of the QCL driving current.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Exemplar image, obtained using our system, of a scalpel blade obscured behind a high-density polyethylene FedEx envelope. (b) Modulation transfer function of the system, obtained from images of gold-on-quartz bar resolution targets. (c) A high-resolution image of a British two-pence coin ( diameter = 25.9 mm ).

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